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Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 2 The Story of Human Evolution
1st PUC History The Story of Human Evolution Text Book Questions and Answers
I. Answer in one word or one sentence (Each carries 1 Mark).
From which language is the term ‘human’ derived?
The term ‘human’ is derived from the Latin language’.
What is the meaning of the term ‘homo’?
‘Homo’ means man (inclusive of a woman).
When did the Earth originate?
4.5 billion years ago.
Which was the book written by Charles Darwin?
“The origin of species”.
When did human like beings evolve on earth?
About 30 million years ago.
How many years were required to genus homo to evolve from the superfamily Hominoidea?
About 30 million years ago.
When did genus Homo come into existence?
5.6 million years ago.
Which human species was the first to manufacture stone tools?
Bipedalism means walking or running on two feet.
II. Answer in 2 words or 2 sentences each (Each carries 2 Marks).
Mention any two theories of origin and evolution of Earth.
There are many theories regarding the origin of earth. Some of these are philosophical and the others are scientific.
Among scientific theory:
- The steady state theory
- The pulsating theory
- The Big bang theory
The big Bang theory is popular and widely accepted.
Which were the two important factors responsible for the formation of Earth’s weather and climate?
The two important factors responsible for the formation of earth weather and climate are:
- The temperature high
- Frequent volcanic eruptions and large collisions.
Which were the two chemicals responsible for the origin of life?
The basic chemicals in the earth’s atmosphere are:
Which were the two theories proposed by Charles Danvin?
- Theory of evolution
- The origin of species are the two theories proposed by Charles Robert Darwin.
Which two animals are considered as the nearest relatives of man?
The chimpanzees and Bonobos are the closest relatives of the humans.
Where do we find evidences for the earlies planned hunting and butchery of large animals?
The earliest evidence of planned hunting and butchery of large animals is traced in two sites
- Boxgrove in England dated to about 500,000 years ago.
- Schoringen in Germany dated to about 400,000 years ago.
III. Answer in 15 – 20 sentences (Each 5 Marks).
How was the Earth’s Crust formed?
The earth remained in the molten state for many million years and then began to cool. The volcanic activity also reduced considerably. The gradual cooling of earth made the outer side to become solid rock, which is called earth’s crust. Further cooling made the earth’s crust to contrast.
The gases created [Released by Valcanoes] the primordial atmosphere. The crust was still hot and water was in the steam form. Further cooling condensed the steam to form clouds and then rains began to pour m torrents. This continuous down pour formed lakes, rivers and sea.
The rains and winds eroded the valley and mountains. The erosion formed rocks to break and form tiny particles of sand and mud the, continuous erosion formed soil and the ocean floor.
How was food and shelter responsible for Humeri evolution?
Hominoids lived on trees provided thus protection from the predators. The Hominoids were food gatherers. They procured food by gathering seeds, nuts, fruits, berries etc. They were not meat eaters. Hominoids began to adopt to land, changing the climate helps to rise of grasslands, plains and deserts.
They were forced to come on to land to procure food. They began to adapt land-dwelling. The hominoids began to use caves and extended stone boulders shelter. These shelters on land provided them with considerable safety from the predators and from rain, wind and the rays of the sun.
The shortage of food made them to seavenge for food. They covered long distances to forage or scavenge for naturally dead animals or left overs of animals killed by predators. The above activities made them gradually develop an upright posture and consequently the bipedal motion. This was required for survival.
Human species began planned hunting and fishing to the already existing gathering foraging and scavenging techinques. Planned hunting required developing tools and cooperation from fellow beings, it stimulated the growth in the brain size they began to erect or build structural shelters by using stone, woods skeleton of large animals or bones and thatch.
The Hominoids were quadrupeds. They gradually adopted an upright posture. Bipedalism was basic adaptation of the Hominines. Here Bipedalism means walking or running on two feet. Bipedal motion freed the forelimbs, forelimbs gradually developed precision grip and power grip, with this, the forelimbs evolved into hands.
What was the role of domestication of animals and agriculture in Human evolution?
The humans who were food gatheres and hunters. Later slowly they became food producers. They were overcome food problems. They began to domesticate the different animals. The first animal to be domesticated is the dog. The dogs were hanged around hunters camp to pick up bones and scraps of meat.
The dog helped the humans in hunting and guarding his shelter. Then humans began to rearing other animals like sheep, goat, cow, cat, camel and horse. The rearing animals made humans as a nomad. He traveled widely searching food and water to his animals. Later he began to cultivation, It is considered as a revolutionary changes in the history of human revolution.
It was a very important aspect of the neolithic age. Humans began to grow various crops like wheat, rice, millets etc., The practice of agriculture is not more than 13,000 years old. It made him lead a settled life. Thus, the domestication of animals and commencement agriculture helped a lot to human evolution.
From there onwards, he began – to settle on the banks of river because it learned that water and fertile soil provide a settled life. This groups of people enlarged and leads to rise of civilizations.
What role did bipedalism and Stone tools play in the Human evolution?
Bipedalism means walking or running on two feet. Earlier, the Hominoids walked on all four (4) limbs, but the forelimbs became flexible [It takes lakhs of years] Hominoids gradually adapted an upright posture. The skeletal structure and the muscles also adjusted over a period of time to the upright posture and the Bipedal motion.
Bipedal motion freed the forelimbs. The forelimbs gradually developed precision grip and power grip, with this, the forelimbs evolved into hands. This greatly helped in hunting and defending themselves, walking on two legs also useful and made easy to cover long distance with a short time. So, Bipedalism helped a evolution of man.
Discuss the place of origin of the modern man.
The place of origin of the modem man is a much debated matter. There are 2 divergent theories about origin of modem man. The replacement or African origin theory, if The regional continuity theory. According to the replacement theory, the modem human species evolved from the archaic species in Africa.
Because the climatic conditions permit to emergence modern human species. Some of them migrated, later these humans replaced the earlier human like species in those region. The discovery of fossils of the early human species in Africa and the genetical and anatomical homogeneity among the modem humans in all parts of the world are evidence for this theory.
According to the regional continuity theory The evolution of different human species from the earlier species occurred in all regions of the world. It occurred in Europe, and Asia also as it occured in Africa. The evolution proceeded at different rates at different regions. The dissimilarities among the human populations in different regions of the world are to be taken as evidence to the regional continuity theory.
IV. Answer the following questions in 30 – 40 sentences (10 Marks).
Discuss the important factors of Human evolution.
Important factors in human evolution can be listed as follows:
- Climate change
- Growth in Brain size
- Food and shelter
- Tool making
- Domestication of animals and commencement of agriculture
Climate condition influences the living beings. The changing cycles of climate and weather have greatly affected the human evolution to a very large extent. In the beginning stage the earth was covered with snow’.
Then there were major changes in climate and weather and support rise of vegetation and small micro organ species, and living beings. So the weather and climate has played an important role in the origin and evolution and the existence and extinction of various species.
2. Growth in Brain size:
The human species evolved larger brains due to the environmental challenges they faced. The growth in the brain size induced many activities like improved vision, upright posture, bipedalism, tool making, use of fire, planned and skilled hunting, storing food, language etc., these activities helped in die development of the brain.
3. Food and Shelter:
Hominoids lived on trees. The trees provided them protection from the predators. The Hominoids were food gathers. They procured food by gathering seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, tubers etc., They were not meat-eaters. Later Homenoids began to use caves and extended stone boulders as shelter.
The shortage of food made them to scavenge for food. They wandered long distances. These activities made them gradually develop an upright posture and consequently the bipedal motion. This was required for survival.
The Hominoids gradually adopted an upright posture and it helps to develop the forelimbs and improvement in muscles. These activities made humans walk and run easily on two feet.
5. Tool making:
The use of stone tools is studied as ‘the stone Age The making and use of stone tools were responsible to the evolution of Tot climbs into hands and also the growth in brain size.
The early humans began to use signals and gradually two or three word utterance. This type of crude communication began to improve to produce different kinds of sounds. This types of sounds formed language. The expand of brain size was also are of two factors responsible for the development of language.
7. Domestication of animals and commencement of agriculture:
The first animal domesticated is the pet dog later cow, sheep, goat, cat etc., As the strength of animals increased caused food and water for them. The man began to search food and water and select the banks of the river for dwelling. He stopped food gathering and start agriculture to produce food. So, thus agriculture gave him a settled life in earth.
The paintings on wall, different objects carved on the walls of caves were very interesting and gives us a lot of information about other activities of the early man.
1st PUC History The Story of Human Evolution Additional Questions and Answers
I. Answer in one word or one sentence.
Which theory about origin and evolution of earth is popular and widely accepted?
The Big bang theory is popular and widely accepted.
Which is the first form of animal life in earth?
Protozoa is the first form of animal life on earth. It is about 500 million years ago.
Write any two evidences of early humans?
Fossils, stone tools, cave painting are the few evidences of early humans.
Name the super family animals found on earth?
Chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, Gibbons belong to the superfamily.’
What is the brain size of Homosepiencs?
1400 cubic centimeter.
II. 2 lines Question & Answers.
What was the classification of stone Age.
These historians classified the stone age into 3. They are paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic stone ages.
Name the domesticated animals of early humans.
The dog, sheep, goat, cat, cow, camel and horse.