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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Environmental Issues – Planning and Sustainable Development
2nd PUC Geography Geographical Perspective on Environmental Issues – Planning and Sustainable Development Text Book Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.
What do you mean by environmental pollution?
Environment means surrounding conditions. Environmental pollution means the release of harmful substances and energy from human activities. It is the undesired, impaired state of environment for human life. The Quality of environment is deteriorated by human activities.
What is water pollution?
Degradation of the quality of water due to indiscriminate use of water is called water pollution.
At which stretch/course the Yamuna River is most polluted?
The River Yamuna is most polluted stretches are:
- Delhi to confluence with chambal due to extraction of water by Haryana and Uttar Pradesh for irrigation. The main polluter is Delhi. It is dumping its domestic Waste.
- Mathura and Agra: Agricultural run o ff resulting in high levels of micropollutants in the Yamuna.
What is air pollution?
Increased concentration of contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour in the air is called air pollutions.
What is noise pollution?
The state ofhigh level of noise levels which is unbearable and uncomfortable to human beings is called noise pollution.
What are solid wastes?
Solid wastes refers to any unwanted or discarded materials from residential, commercial, mining, industrial and agricultural activities.
What are slums?
A slum is an area of illegal constructions within the city characterized by substandard housing and dirt.
What do you mean by planning?
Planning is the process by which an individual or organisation decides in advance on same future course of action. It involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal.
What is sustainable development?
The term sustainable development is defined as development to achieve the needs of present generation without compromising future generations needs.
II. Answer the following in two or three sentences each.
What are pollutants?
A pollutant is a substance or an energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effect or adversely effect, the usefulness of a resource. A pollutant may cause long or short term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal species.
What are the types of pollution?
The types of pollution are:
- Air Pollution
- Water Pollution.
- Land Pollution.
- Noise Pollution.
What are the Causes of water pollution?
High concentration of suspended particles. Organic and in organic substances sewage disposal, urban run off, Toxic effluents from industries, run off over cultivated lands and nuclear power plants are the causes for water pollution.
What are the effects of water pollution on human health?
Water pollutants affect the health of humans. It is a source of various water-borne diseases which causes diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis.
Name three states of India where Ganga River is most polluted.
The three states of India where Ganga river is most polluted are:
- Uttar pradesh.
- West Bengal.
What are the main causes of pollution of Ganga River?
Industrial pollution from towns, Domestic wastes from urban centres, Dumping of carcasses in the river Agricultural runoff resulting in high levels of micro pollutants. Domestic and industrial waste are the main causes of pollution of Ganga river.
Name three states of India where Yamuna River is most polluted.
Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Mathura and Agra are the places of India where Yamuna river is most polluted.
What are the causes / sources of air pollution?
The causes of Air pollution are:
- Increased use of varieties of fuels such as coal, petrol and diesel.
- Increase in emission ofToxic gages from Industrial activities into the at mosphere.
- Mining activities release dust in the air.
- Important pollutants are oxides of sulphur and Nitrogen, hydrocarbon, carbon-di-oxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos.
What are the effects of air pollution?
The highest amount of air pollution is from urban centres All pollution causes diseases related to respiratory nervous and circulatory systems, urban, smog, acid rain and global warming.
What are the causes of noise pollution?
The causes of noise pollution are:
- It is caused by noise from various factories, mechanised construction, and demolition works, automobiles and air crafts,
- Noise from Sirens, loud speakers, used in various festivals, programmes associated with community activities.
- The biggest noise pollution is produced by traffic.
- In sea traffic the noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities.
What are the effects of noise pollution?
Noise pollution is hazardous in many metropolitan and big cities in India. It causes stress and high blood pressure, nervous, uneasiness among the people living close to the source of noise pollution. It has an adverse effect on animal life. It retards the growth of animals and affects their working capacity.
Mention two sources of solid wastes.
The two sources of solid wastes are:
- Household or domestic establishment.
- Industrial or commercial establishment.
Explain harmful effects of solid wastes.
The harmful effects of solid wastes are:
- Solid wastes cause hazard through creation of obnoxious smell and harbouring of flies and rodents, which act as carriers of diseases like typhoid, diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria and cholera.
- These waste cause frequent nuisance as and when these are carelessly handled, spread by wind and splintered through rainwater.
- The dumping of industrial waste into rivers leads to water pollution River pollution from city-based industries and untreated Sewages leads to serious health problems downstream.
Define the concept of land degradation.
The land serves as storage of water and materials for plants and other living micro-macro-organisms pressure on agricultural land increases not only due to the limited availability but also by the deterioration of quality of agricultural land due to soil erosion-water logging, salinisation and alkalisation which is known as degradation.
Name different types of degraded lands in India.
Different types of degraded lands in India are:
- Total wasteland
- Barren and uncultivable wasteland
- Natural Degraded CWL
- Natural and Man-Made degraded CWL
- Man-made degraded CWL
- Total Degraded CWL CWL – cultivable wasteland.
What are the strategies for sustainable development?
The term “Sustainable development” is defined as development to achieve the needs of the present generation without compromising future generations needs. The conceptual meaning of sustainable development is not to create an obstacle in development process but this concept belongs to how we utilize our resources. So that an interrelationship can be established among present and future generation to attain sustainable development many probable strategies can be useful.
III. Answer the following.
Explain about urban waste disposal in India.
The unwanted discarded materials from houses and commercial industrial and agricultural materials throughout urban wide. Urban centres are known for large amount of waste generation. It is a serious problem in India. In metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, etc. about 90% of the solid waste is collected and disposed of.
The waste may be treated as resource and utilized for generating energy and composed and treated waste ferment relesed toxic bio-gases to the atmosphere including methane, this waste should be treated as resources and utilized for generating energy and composed.
How solid wastes can be used for benefits? State any six problems of related to slums in metropolitan cities of India.
Solid waste refers to any unwanted or discarded material from residential, commercial, mining, industrial and agricultural activities. Solid waste management is essential to maintain cleaniliness and environmental quality these waste should be treated as resources and utilised for generating energy.
The problems of slums in metropolitan cities are:
- Houses in slums are decaying, poor hygienic conditions, poor ventilation, lack of basic amenities like drinking water. Light and toilet facilities.
- They are over crowded having narrow street which will give way to serious hazards from fire.
- People living in slums works in high-risk Jobs and unorganised sectors so They are paid less.
- They are undernourished and prone to different types are diseases and illness.
- They cannot afford to proper education to their children.
- The poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse alcoholism crime, vandalism and they face social exclusion.
Discuss any six problems of people living in slums.
The problems ofpeople living in slums are:
- People hying in slums work in high risk jobs and organised sectors so they are paid less.
- They are undernourished prone to different types‘diseases and illness.
- They cannot afford to give proper education to their children the poverty makes them to take drug, alcoholism, crime, vandalism and finally they lace social exclusion.
- They are poor.
- Children of slums are prone to follow bad habits.
Mention the processes that induce land degradation in India?
The land serves as storage of water and material for plants and other living micro and maicro organism, pressure on agriculture land increases not only due to the limited availability but also by deterioration of Quality of agricultral land due to soil erosion, water logging, salinization and alkalisation which is called degradation.
The degradation ultimately affect on agricultural productivity in addition to degradation by natural process such as gullied, deserved barren rocky areas land degradation is caused by man. This have caused water logged and marshy areas. Land affected by salinity and alkality degraded shift cultivation area and under plantation crop degraded forests, degraded pasture and mining and industrial waste land.
What do you mean by the term planning? Which are the two approaches to planning? Explain each of them.
Planning is the process by which an individual or organisation decides in advance on somefuture course of action it involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme of a prbgramme implication of set of action to achieve some goal.
The 2 apporaches of planning are:
- The sectoral planning.
- Regional planning.
1. Sectoral planning:
It means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or prommages aimed at the development of the various sector of the economy like agriculture, irrigation, transport, communication social Infrastructure and services.
2. Regional planning:
Some areas are more developed and some lag behind this uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners should have spatial, perspective and draws the plans regional imbalance in development. This type of planning is known as Regional planning.
What is target area planning? Why it is necessary in India? Give any four examples of target area planning.
Target area planing means making a scheme for the development of a particular group or area such as backward regions. This type of planing is necessary in India as regional imbalances in economic development getting serious.
The example of target area planing are:
- Command Area Development Programme.
- Drought prone Area Development programme.
- Desert Development Programme.
- Hill area Development programme.
Explain the concept of sustainable development.
The term sustainable development is defined as development to achieve the needs of the present generation without compromising future generations needs, the united nations established a world commission of environment and development [WCED] headed by the Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland.
The commission Gave its report entitled “our common future” in 1987. The report defines sustainable development as a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of the development.
Discuss the challenges of Sustainable Development in India.
The challenges of sustainable development in India are:
The population is a major challenge for the r sustainable development. The basic challenges will be storages of drinking water and arable land for food production.
Almost 25% of the world’s population fives on less than one meal a day.
Inequality continues to be a serious obstacle to sustainable development with the number of people suffering from under nourishment. In many regions of the world cultivating area is limited. In future the current state bio-diversity loss should be conserved.
4. Shortage of Drinking water:
It’s a major barrier to sustainable development at the current rate of development every second person will suffer from water – shortage by year 2025.
5. Human Health:
In many cases death in developing countries are avoidable. Humanity should direct more attention and money in the coming years to the struggle against diseases. The main task is to reduce the death rate.
6. Consumption of energy:
consumption of all forms of energy is continually raising sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source is required.
The world’s forest diminish mainly due to expansion of agriculture. Improving the recovery and management of the forest will be of utmost importance.
8. Petrol consumption:
It is constantly raising the summit emphasised the need to realise the decisions of the “Kyoto protocol” for reaching an agreement on emission norms for greenhouse gases in developed countries.