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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 3 with Answers
Time : 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks : 100
Part – A
I. Answer the following in one word or one sentence each: 10 x 1 = 10
What is excavation?
Excavation is the scientific digging of earth for unearthing ancient buildings or artefacts.
Which was the first metal used by man in North India?
Copper was the first metal used by man in North India.
Who built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore?
The Rajarajeshwara (Brihadeslnvara) temple was built by Rajaraja Chola -1 in 1009 C.E.
Which was the original home of the Kushanas?
The Kushanas were originally a nomadic race known as Yuch – Chi and they lived in China.
Which was the inscription issued by Gautami Balashri?
Nasik cave inscription.
What was the title of Shivaji?
Chatrapati was the title of Shivaji.
Which is the holy book of the Sikhs?
Gurugranth Sahib or Adigrantha is the holy book of Sikhs.
Who was the devotee of Krishna who popularized her philosophy in Rajasthan?
In which year was the Battle of Plassey fought?
Which was the famous work of AlurVenkata Rao?
Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava was the work of Alur Venkata Rao.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: 10 x 2 = 20
What is the meaning of the term “Neolithic”?
The word Neolithic is derived from the Greek word ‘neo’ which means New, and ‘Lithic’ which means ‘stone’ meaning ‘New Stone’ age.
What is the meaning of the term “Paleolithic?”
The word Paleolithic is derived from the Greek words Paleo (old) and lithic (stone). This refers to the old stone Age.
Name the two sects of Buddhism.
Hinayana and Mahayana.
Who erected the Gommateshwara statue and where?
Chavundaraya erected Gomatteshwan statue at saravanabelagula.
Mention any two titles a RajendraChola -1.
Pandita Chola, Gangaiknda Chola etc.
Name two Vedas?
Who was shivappa nayaka and why was he famous?
Shivappa Nayaka was a ruler of Keladi. He was famous for his Land Revenue scheme, called ‘Shivappa Nayaka’s Sistu.
Which were the two important taxes collected by Shivaji?
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi
Who founded AnubhavaMantapa and Where?
Basaveshwara at kalyana(Bidar Dist)
Between whom was the Battle of Plassey fought?
Shiraj-ud-Daula (Bengal) and Robert Clive (British) in 1757 C.E.
What is Ryotwari system?
The East India Company made direct settlement with the cultivators. The ownership of Land was given to Ryots on the condition that they had to pay a fixed revenue to the company.
Which Congress session declared “Poorna Swaraj” as its aim? When was it held?
Lahore Congress session presided over by Nehru declared complete independence as its aim in 1929.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15 words or 20 sentences each: 6 x 5 = 30
Explain briefly the impact of Geography in Indian History.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km ) with different climatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land, where we see unity in diversity. “India” is the epitome of the world. On the basis of its physical features, India can be broadly divided into 5 geographical divisions.
- The Himalayan regions,
- The plains of Hindustan or the Northern plains,
- The Deccan plateau or plains,
- The coastal region or coastline and
- The Thar desert.
The Himalayan region: The Himalaya: separate India from the rest of Asia. Thest are the highest mountain ranges in the world. The Himalayas have played a very important role in the Indian history’. The; prevent the cold winds and invaders from the north. The snow-capped mountain ranges have given birth to the north India rivers (Sindhu, Ganga, Yamuna and Brahmaputra). They are rich in minera’ and natural wealth.
The Northern Plains: It is locate between the Himalayas in the north an the Vindhya mountains to the south. Froi Assam in the east to Punjab in the west runs over 2400 kms. This region is watered by the great rivers like the Sindhu and hi tributaries in the west, Ganga and Yamur in the center and Brahmaputra valley , the east. These rivers have made the plair rich and fertile, and they were the cradk of civilizations and Empires. The gre; Indus valley civilization and vedic cultu1 developed in this region. The Ary an cultu was brought up in the Lido-Gangetic plans. The northern passes such as Khybar, Bolan etc., have helped indians to have commercial and cultural relations with the outside world.
The western desert and the dense forests.of the Deccan plateau: This region includes the Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rann of Kutch(Rajastan). It stretches almost upto and beyond the Aravalli range, which is now almost dry in the hot weather. So, this region has turned the inhabitants into hard working and warlike.
Deccan Plateau: It is a tringular peninsula or ‘v’ shaped land. It is surrounded by the Vindhyas in the north and by sea on the other three sides (Bay of Bengal in the east, Arabian sea in the west and the Indian ocean in the south). They have helped develop the commerical and cultural relations with the west. The geographical diversity and existence of various races like Dravidian, Alpine, Mongolian and different tribes have led to the development of different languages and cultures. The river valleys in the north and south have made the country agrarian. They have also influenced the rise and fall of many dynasties and growth of many religious, cultural, educational and commercial centres.
Coastline: Eastern (Coromandel coast) and western (Malabar) coastal plains are traversed by many big rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. Abundance of rain and favourable climate has resulted in the growth of rich flora (plants of a particular region) and fauna (Animals of a region). Excluding the Himalayas, hills and the desert area, the whole country falls in the tropical climate zone. The atmosphere is conducive for the all – round growth of mankind.
Explain the life and teachings of Mahaveera.
Vardhaman Mahaveer: (599-527 B.C.E.) Life of Mahaveera: He was the 24th Thirthankara and the real founder of Jainism. He was born in Kundagrama near Vaishali in 599 BCE in a kshatriya family. His parents were Siddhartha and Trishala. Siddhartha was the head of a kshatriya clan called Janatrika. Vardhaman had a very comfortable early life. At the age of 18, he married Yashoda and subsequently a daughter was born. Her name was Anojja or Priyadarshini. Mahaveera was inclined towards spiritual life and renounced worldly life.
He left home and wandered naked in search of the truth and the real meaning of life. He lived the life of self-mortification (renunciation) and deep meditation. Finally one day in Vaishaka, he attained Supreme Knowledge (Enlightenment) of Kaivalya(Jnana) and became Kevalin (omniscient) at Jrimbhikagrama in Bihar. Later he became also known as Jina, which means conqueror of all likings and dislikings. His followers came to be known as Jains. Vardhaman was hailed as Mahaveer or the Great Conqueror.
Propagation of the Religion: Mahaveera spent the rest of his life in preaching his doctrines to the people of Magadha. Anga, Mithila, Kosala and other parts of India. His religion attracted a large number of followers and also Kings like Bindusara and Ajatashatru. He accepted the teachings of Parshwanatha as the basis of Jainism. He lived till the age of 72 years and passed away at Pavapuri near Patna, in 527 BCE.
Teachings of Mahaveera: The main basis of Jainism is the belief in soul and karma. The main objective of Jainism is the attainment of salvation by freeing the soul from the earthly pleasures. Mahaveera preached five vows and three jewels for the attainment of salvation.
Three jewels or thiratnas:
- Right, Knowledge is understanding the doctrines of Jainism.
- Right Faith is the firm belief in the omniscience of Mahaveera.
- Right action or conduct is the fulfillment of the five great vows.
The main teaching of Mahaveera was “Ahimsa Paramodharma”. He paid great importance to non-violence and rejected the authority of the vedas and the supremacy of the brahmins. He believed in establishing an order which would lead ‘ the people to the path of truth and salvation.
To liberate the soul from the bondage of kanna, it is necessary to destroy the latter. This can be achieved by an individual by practising the five vows or principles.
Five vows (principles) or avoidance of the five evil karmas: Mahaveera preached the ethical code and insisted that the following five should be practiced. They are:
- Non-violence (Ahimsa): Jainism believed in an extreme form of non-violence. Ahimsa means that violence should not be caused by words, thoughts and actions. There should be no harm or ill-treatment to any living being.
- Truth (Satya): One should not speak untruth, and should also avoid speaking a bitter truth.
- Non-stealing (Asteya): One should never steal or pick up things that do not belong to them either directly or indirectly.
- Non-possession (Aparigraha): Aparigraha means one is to avoid the longing for worldly things, possession of wealth and property.
- Chastity (Brahmacharya): Chastity means control of passions, emotions and desires. Purity of thought, words and deed are to be cultivated.
All these five principles will lead to the path of salvation. Mahaveera did not believe that the universe was created by God nor did he make any reference to Him. He preached that change was a natural phenomenon. Birth and death were natural and applicable to men and matter. He condemned the caste system and the sacrificial rituals. Nirvana should be the ultimate aim of a soul.
Write about the achievements of Chandragupta Maurya.
Chandragupta Maurya 324-300 BCE:
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty. There is very little information about his parents, his birth and early childhood. He was born in the capital city of Pataliputra. Kautilya, better known as Chanakya, a brahmin from Takshashila took the orphan under his care, educated him in all the princely requirements and trained him to be a worthy commander and Ruler. Chandragupta was fortunate to come under the influence of this great thinker, politician and statesman.
(a) Conquests of Punjab: Chandra- gupta built a strong army under the guidance of Chanakya and defeated the petty Rulers of Punjab and annexed their regions. He then marched against Magadha.
(b) Defect of the Nanda ruler: Chandra gupta made several attempts to defeat the Nandas. Chanakya had vowed to depose Dhanananda, because he had insulted Chanakya. Dhanananda was finally defeated and killed and Chandragupta Maurya became the King of Magadha and established the Mauryan dynasty. After overthrowing and ending, Dhanananda’s oppressive rule, Chandragupta consolidated his power and freed the country from foreign occupation. The Greek Governors appointed by Alexander in the Sindh and Punjab provinces were defeated and the territories were annexed by Chandragupta.
(c) War with Seleucus: After the death of Alexander, the eastern part of his Empire went over to Seleucus. A war ensued between Seleucus and Chandragupta Maurya. Seleucus was defeated, and he had to sign a treaty with Chandragupta and had to surrender the provinces of Kabul, Afghanistan, Kandahar and Baluchistan. This victory of Chandragupta spread his Kingdom upto the frontiers of Hindukush (Afghanistan) in the north west. Seleucus maintained friendly relations with the Mauryas and sent Megasthanes as his Ambassador to Pataliputra.
Assessment: Chandragupta was undoubtedly one of the greatest Rulers of India. He expelled the Greeks from the country. According to Jain tradition, in the last days of his reign, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism under the influence of the Jain scholar Bhadrabahu. He spent his last days at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka and died by performing ‘Sallekhana’ in 300 BCE.
Illustrate Hoysala contributions to religion and literature.
Hoysala rulers have contributed a lot in the fields of religion, literature, art and architecture. A unique style of architecture and sculpture was developed during this period. It is known as ‘The golden age of temple architecture’.
(a) Religion: The Hoysala period witnessed great religious activities. Hoysalas patronised Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism. Most of the Hoysala rulers were devout Jains and patronised Jainism. Bittideva (Vishnuvardhana) was initially a Jain, but by the influence of Ramanuja charya, he embraced Srivaishnavism. He changed his name from Bittideva to Vishunardhana. His Queen Shantaladevi and his general Oangaraja were Jains.
Shaivism was encouraged by the Hoysala Kings like Ballala-II and Someshwara. Sivacharya wrote commentaries on the Gita and Brahma sastras. By the 12th century, a dynamic form of Saivism known as Virasaivism came into existence. Raman’ujacharya led the spread of Srivaishnavism in Karnataka. People had complete freedom in their religious activities. This led to the construction and renovation of a number of temples and basadies in different parts of the Kingdom.
(b) Literature: Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished during this period. Nagachandra was patronised by Ballala-1. He was called as ‘ Ahinava Pampa’ or ‘Kavita Manohara’. He was the author of books like Mall inathapurpna, Ramachandra charitha and Pampa Ramayana. Janna was in the court of Ballala-Il, and he received the title ‘Kavichakravarthi Janna wrote Yashodacharitre and Ananthanatha Purana. Keshiraja wrote Shabdamanidarpana, the first Kannada grammar treatise. Nayasena was the author of Dharmainrutha.
Among the several other celebrities were Harihara who wrote Girija Kalyana, Pampashataka and Shivaksharamale and Raghavanka, who wrote Harischandra Kavya and Siddaramapurana. Rajaditya was the author of Kshetra Ganitha, Vyavahara Ganitha and Leelavathi. Thrivikrama panditha wrote Ushaharana, Narayana panditha wrote Mandhava Vijaya and Manimanjari and Sakala, Vidyachak ravarthi-111 wrote Rukmini Kalyana. All these were in Sanskrit.
Describe the contributions of Mughals to literature, art and architecture.
Literature: The Mughal period witnessed a growth in literature. Many literary works were written in Persian, Hindi, Turkish and Arabic languages. Babar had written his memoirs or ‘Tuzuk – i – Baburi in Turkish. It was translated into Persian by Abdul Rahim. Hamayun’s sister Gulbadan Begum wrote ‘Humayun Nama’, Abdul Fazal wrote ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ and ‘Akbar Nama’. His style was grand and he was the most remowned Persion writer. The Tabakat-i-Akbari was written by Nizamuddin. Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharva veda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persian.
Prince Dara (son of Shahjahan), translated the Upanishads into Persian. Jahangir wrote a book ‘Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri’. Shahjahan patronized the scholors like Abdul Hamid Lahori who wrote Padshah Nama and Inayat Khan who was the author of Shahjahan Nama.
Hindi Literature: The well known Hindi poets of Akbar’s time were Abdul Rahim, – Bhagwandas. Mansingh, Birbal, Tulasidas and others. Birbal was the favourite of „ Akbar and was conferred the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Tulasidas wrote ‘Ramcharit manas’. Surdas wrote the famous work ‘Sur Sagar’, Ras Khan who was a muslim devotee of Lord Krishna, wrote ‘Prem Vatika’, Malik Mohammad Jaisy wrote the famous epic called ‘Padmavati’. Sundar of Gwalior composed the work ‘Sundar Sringar’. The great Sanskrit scholar Jagannath Pandit wrote ‘Ganga Lahari’. In Bengali, Marathi, Urdu and Gujarathi also, literature progressed during the Mughal rule. Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan were great patrons of literature in their courts.
Art and Architecture: The mughals were great builders and lovers of art and architecture. Their style of architecture was partly foreign and partly indigenous. The important features of the mughal architecture were domes, tall pillars, gateways with domes, arches, minars etc., The mughals built a large variety of secular and religious buildings. Babar built the mosques at Kabulibagh in Panipat and Jami Masjid at Sambal in Rohilkhand. Humayun built mosques at Agra and Fathepur. Fie built a palace at Delhi called Din-i-Panah. Sher Shah built his tomb at Sas’aram and the Purana Qila at Delhi. Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India.
The first work of Akbar was the Humayun Tomb at Delhi which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai palace and Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikhri. The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘ Buland Darwaza’ is the tallest Gateway in India. Agra Red Fort. Jamma-Masjid, white marble tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas, house of Birbal, and Sonhal Makan are some of the most beautiful architectural pieces at Fathepur Sikhri built by Akbar.
The architecture of mughals reached its highest watermark during the reign of Shahjahan. He got built many buildings at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Kabul, Kashmir, Kandhar, Ajmer and other places. The important buildings of Shahjahan were the Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas. Red Fort and Jamma Masjid in Delhi. Moti Masjid and Taj Mahal in Agra.
Taj Mahal (1632-1653): Taj Mahal at Agra is symbolic of the royal love. Shahjahan built it on the banks of river Yamuna in the memory of his beloved wife Arjumand Banu Begum, who was given the title ‘Mumtaz Mahal’. Taj was constructed under the guidance of Ustad – is a – Khan. It took nearly 22 years for the construction to be completed and nearly Rs 3 crores was spent for the purpose. The height of the mahal is 187 ft. It was built of white marble. The Taj is certainly the “finest monument of conjugal love and fidelity”. It is considered as ‘one of the wonders of the modern world”.
Paintings of the Mughal Age: Babur, Akbar and Jahangir were the most important mughal rulers who patronized painting. Babur was a lover of beauty and aft. The mughal painting is a mixture of Indian and Persian styles. Indian artists under Akbar, caused the growth of this mughal style. Akbar created a separate department of paintings under the control of Khwaja Abdul Samad. He gained the title’ Shirim Khaim or Sweet Pen’. They painted court scenes, historical events and natural scenes. Portraits and miniature paintings were a Mughal speciality.
Govardhan, Jagannath, Tarachand, Abdul Sammad, Mir Sayyid Ali, Basawan, Manohar, Bishen Das, Aqa Riza, Abul Hasan, and Ustad Mansur were some of the great artists of this time. Jahangir was an expert judge and critic of paintings.
Music: Mughal Emperors patronized music and musicians. Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the great musicians in the court of Akbar. Babar, Jahangir and Shahjahan were themselves good singers and composed many lyrics.
Why is Mohammed Bin Thughlaq called as a “mixture of opposites”?
Administrative experiments of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
(a) Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the Ganga and Yamuna (Doab) rivers being a very fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state, Mohammad – bin – Tughalak decided to increase the taxes there. But he enforced the tax raise at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of additional taxation. Revenue collection was also strict, which the farmers were unable to pay. This measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
(b) Transfer of capital in 1327 C.E.:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objective was to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. Also, Devagiri occupied a central position in India and it was equidistant to Delhi and the other important cities of his Kingdom. He desired to shift the entire Delhi population along with his court. Barani says that “Not a cat or a dog was left”. Causes for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical.
The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through the dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by dacoits, hunger, mental agony etc., resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan having atlast realised his folly, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire incident made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool, operation – Daulatabad was a “Monument of misdirected energy”. This scheme also failed on account of the Sultan’s unplanned method of forcing it on his people.
(c) Circulation of token currency in 1329 C.E.:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief to the Doab people famine, transfer of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency in circulation, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass. Tanka was the token currency and its value was made equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as a monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as the ‘Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert. The Sultan did not take precautionary measures to minting of the coins.
People started minting their own coins. Hence, the empire was flooded with thousands of counterfeit copper coins. People paid their taxes with these counterfeit coins. Copper coins lost their value as a medium of exchange. Trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his error in judgement and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 C.E. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. When every body was there to exchange their copper coins with silver and gold coins, the treasury became empty.
Mohammad – bin-Tughalakwas an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice, without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was a ‘mixture of opposites”. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks that, “Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions”. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well meant, were ill planned and badly executed.
What are the causes and the results of the Battle of Plassey?
Battle of Plassey in 1757: The battle of Plassey was fought between the British (Robert Clive) and Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in 1757. This battle led to the British supremacy in India.
Causes for the battle of Plassey:
(a) Misuse of the concession pass (Dastaks): The British had received tax concessions from the Mughal Emperors. But, servants of the East India Company were misusing the concessions by openly indulging in private trade for profit. They refused to pay any taxes to the Nawab. This resulted in the loss of income to the state, and was opposed by the Nawab of Bengal. This was the main cause for the battle of Plassey.
(b) Shelter to the French and demolition of fortifications of factories : The British and the French were rivals. The British captured Chandranagore from the French. Siraj-ud-Daula gave shelter to some frenchmen, which angered the British. Siraj-ud-Daula tried to develop cordial relations with the British, but soon the relations got strained because the British fearing the French attack began to fortify their factories in Bengal which was counter to the interest of Bengal, when Siraj-ud-Daula protested and demanded for the demolition of all fortifications of factories.
(c) Political cause – Encouragement to the opponents of Siraj-ud- Daula: Siraj-ud-Daula had many rivals. Soon after his succession to the throne, it was opposed by Shaukath Jung, Ghasti Begum and Rajavallabha who put forward their claims to the throne. The British fully supported the opponents of Siraj-ud- Daulah and ultimately succeeded in bringing his downfall.
(d) The black hole incident or tragedy: During an attack on Kasim Bazar, the forces of Nawab besieged Fort William (Calcutta), The 146 civilians comprising of women and children who surrendered to the Nawab’s army were taken prisoners and forced into a small dark cell (15′ x 18’) within the fort and killed in the most inhuman manner. This incident called ‘The Block hole episode or Tragedy’ took place on 20th June 175″.
Course of the Battle: Peace was concluded between the British and Siraj- ud-Daula and the treaty of Aligarh w as signed in Febuary 1757. Robert Clive hatched a conspiracy with the commander Mir Jafar against Siraj-ud-Daula. When the arrangements were complete, Clive took position at Plassey (Bhagirathi river). However, when the war broke out, the troops under Mir Jafar remained inactive and Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated and he fled, and got killed while trying to escape.
Results of the battle of Plassey:
(a) British domination over Bengal: The British established domination over the political life of Bengal. Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal. He was called a Sovereign but in actual practice he was nothing more than a puppet of the company. He could be removed from the throne any time, by the Company.
(b) Territorial gains for the British: As a result, the British gained both in territorial as well as in finances. The Company received the 24 paraganas and other grants. The trade of the British Company greatly flourished and it made huge profits. Robert Clive was appointed as the Governor of Bengal.
(c) Establishing political supremacy: The battle of Plassey left a deep impact on the course ofAnglo-French conflict in Deccan. This battle laid the foundation for the British supremacy in India.
Explain the personality of Swami Vivekananda.
Swami Vivekananda: He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Panama hamsa. He studied both Indian and Western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influence of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
World religious conference at Chicago-31st may 1893: Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the world. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference” at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America.” This won over the hearts of the people. He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization, He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts, For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in society. The Mission started several schools, hospitals, orphanages and old age Homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes etc., Its branches have been established all over the world. Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the widow’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth’’.
Social and religious reforms: Vivekananda condemned the caste system, rituals ceremonies and superstitions. He stresses the need for social reforms. He preacher tolerance, equality and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women is eradication of poverty.
National Awakening: Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous ca1 “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation. He has been popularly called the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedanth Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. 5 + 5 = 10
(A) Mark any 5 of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences:
(c) Jallianwala Bagh
(a) Bombay: It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was the main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.
(b) Delhi: It is present the capital of India. located on the banks of River Jamuna, it was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals.Man monuments like Qutub Minar.Red Fort. Jama Masjid etc., are located here.
(c) JallianWalabagh: It is located iii the city ofArnritsar in Panjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed people who were protesting against the Rowlatt Acton 13th April 1919.
(d) Kanchi (Kancitipuram): It is near Chennai ill Tamil Nadu. It was the capital of the Pahlavas. The city is famous for Shaia and Vaishanava temples. [lie famous Karnakshi teinole is located here.
(e) Agra: It is situated on the banks of River Jamona in V.P. It was founded by Sikandar Iodhi, It became the capital of Akbar. TajMahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
(f) Bidar: It was the capital city of the Bahamani Kingdom. Here Maharnud Gaaii built a Madarasa.
(g) Calcutta: It is the capital of West Bengal. situated oi the banks of River Hooghli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Viekanada established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
(h) Panipat: it is in Harana state, it was a great battle field in the history of India s%here three great battles were fought.
For Visually challenged students only 31.
(B) Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 Sentences : 1 x 10 = 10
Explain the life and teachings of Buddha.
Life of Gauthama Buddha: Gauthama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha. He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights.
Seeing an oldman, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world. He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth. Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya.
He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth. Gauthama as a preacher: After attaining knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the deer park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara (U.P.), at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poomima”.
Teachings of Buddha: Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of, the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He – preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped, if the person realises that worldly things are not – permanent. , Buddha laid down the analysis of life with. four different principles. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Aiyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow).
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow).
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow).
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’. When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace and enjoy eternal, bliss.
Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
This path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out the completely self indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tel I lie, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma and ‘ Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Trace the Indian National Movements from 1885 to 1920.
Role of the Indian National Congress:
The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 gave a clear warning to the British with regard to the rising national feeling among Indians. There was a need for a common national organisation, which included all classes of people. A.O. Hume (Allan Octavian Hume) inspired the national leaders to establish the Indian National Union in 1884, subsequently the Indian National Congress. The first Indian National Congress session was held at Bombay ort 27th December (1885, presided over by Womesh Chandra Banerjee. 72 delegates from different parts of India attended it and four of them were from Karnataka.
Aims and objectives of the Congress:-
- Promotion of friendly relations among the nationalists and other political workers from different parts of the country’.
- Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion, province, etc.
- Presenting the popular demands of the people before the British Government.
- Organisation of public opinion in the country.
- To politically educate the Indian masses and demand to include more Indians in the councils and civil services.
In the beginning, the British Government was friendly towards the Congress. But as its strength and popularity increased, Congress was in favour of a responsible Government in India and began to demand the same. This irritated the British Government and it began to adopt a policy of favouring anti-Congress elements.
Freedom movement in India can be divided into three stages, namely:-
- The first phase: The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905.
- The second phase: The period of the Extremists in 1905-1920.
- The third phase: The Gandhian period or Era- 1920-1947.
The first phase: The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905:
The early Congress (1885-1905):
Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji (The grand old man of India), Pheroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, G. K. Gokhale, Badruddin Tyabji, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Anandacharlu and others were the moderates. Policy of the Moderates: The Moderates were cordial towards the British, and they ’ had strong faith in the British sense of justice and fairplay. They felt that India will get modernised and uplifted by the benevolent and liberal rule of the British. Moderates followed the principles of Prayers, Petitions and Protests to pressurize the British Government.
They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums to the Government to redress the grievances of the people; If the Government was stubborn to their demands, they used to protest against it. Dadabhai Naoroji established the East 4 India Association in 1866. This Association took up the Indian issues at London and attempted to influence the British public and British legislators to enact policies and laws favoring Indians.
The British were hostile towards the Congress since its establishment and they developed a stem attitude towards the moderates. Their policy was nicknamed as ‘Political Mendicancy’ (begging for political concessions) by the Extremists. They called the Congress as a ‘Factory of sedition’ and leaders as ‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘Disloyal Babus’. Moderates were true patriots and they brought political maturity to the Indians.
They exposed the exploitative character of the colonial rule and policies of the British. They were able to underline that the duty of the Government was to consider the interests of the Indians. The notable results of their demands was the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The Moderates played a very important role in the freedom movement in India. They sowed the seeds of liberalism and nationalist ideas in the minds of Indians.
Second Phase – The period of the Extremists – 1905-1920. The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The Extremists were radical and militant in their approach in contrast to the Moderates. They believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, and only by action. They blamed the British rule for all the prevailing problems and were called as Extremists or Radical Nationalists.
Extremists convinced the public that Self – Government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country. Extremists had grown in self-confidence. The leaders of the extremists were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Roy.
Important events during the Extremist’s Period:
(a) Partition of Bengal in 1905: In 1905, Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal. He justified the partition on administrative convenience, as Bengal was too big a province to be administrated by a single provincial Government. The real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal. The people staunchly opposed this and indulged in the anti-partition movement, boycott of foreign goods and usage of only Swadeshi goods.
(b) The Surat Split-1907: The Extremists and the Moderates differed over issues like election of the President, setting goals and passing resolutions of the Congress. Finally, both the groups agreed to Dadabhai Naoroji for Presidentship of the Congress in 1906. But the Extremists were successful in making Dadabhai Naoroji to declare ‘Swaraj (Self Government) as the goal of the Congress. The differences once again emerged at the Surat session in 1907. The Moderates wanted Rashbihari Ghosh and the Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be the President. Both the groups refused to compromise resulting in the split in the Indian National Congress. This is commonly known as the ‘Surat Split’. The British undertook many repressive measures and also introduced many Acts to suppress the Extremists. Both groups reunited in the Lucknow Congress session.
(c) Revolutionary Nationalism (Terrorism): The repressive measures of the British encouraged revolutionary terrorism. The revolutionaries were radical nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They were ready for any violent activity in order to drive away the British from India. They organised secret societies like Abhinav Bharat and Anusilan Samiti to achieve their goal. The revolutionaries were able to create a commotion but most of them were either imprisoned, exiled, killed or hanged.
(d) Muslim League in 1906: All India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Aga Khan, Nawab Mohsim
ul Mulk and others in 1906. The British tried to check the National movement by following a policy of divide and rule. The League followed a path contrary to that of the Congress. They supported the partition of Bengal and also demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. The Hindu Maha Sabha like the All India Muslim League was also against the Indian National Congress.
(e) Morley – Minto Reforms 1909: This act increased the number of elected members to the Central and Provincial Councils and also introduced separate electorates to the Muslims. The number of seats so reserved was in an higher ratio for the Muslim population when compared to the Hindu population. Only Muslims were to vote to the reserved Muslim seats.
(f) Home Rule League 1916: The Home Rule Movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Annie Besant in 1916. The objective of the movement was to attain Self-Government within the British Empire by all constitutional means. The movement soon spread throughout India and became popular. Tilak gave the popular slogan “Swaraj (Home rule) is my birthright and I shall have it”. Mr. Edwin Montague made a declaration on 20th August 1917. By this announcement, it was promised to give responsible Government to Indians, by degrees.
(g) Montague – Chelmsford Reforms 1919: (Government of India Act of 1919) This Act introduced Bi¬Cameral legislatures (Diarchy). The Central Assembly (Lower house) consisted of 144 members, 104 elected and 40 nominated members. The Council of States (Upper House) was to have 34 elected and 26 nominated members.
(h) Rowlatt act of 1919 and Jalian Walabagh Tragedy: The British Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. This Act empowered the Government to arrest and detain suspected persons without warrant and imprison them without any trial.
Indians protested against the-Rowlatt Act. A huge meeting was held at Jalian Walabagh on 13th April 1919. About 10,000 unarmed people had gathered there. General Dyer with his troops surrounded the meeting place and opened fire on the innocent people and around 1000 persons were killed and many more were injured.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: 2 x 10 = 20
Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka.
Ashoka the Great: Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of, the renowned Rulers of the world. He is mentioned in his edicts as ‘Devanampriya’ and “Priyadarshi’. He considered his , subjects as his own children and considered that the Primary duty of the King was to promote the welfare of the people. He came to power in 273 BCE, but his coronation was celebrated only in 269 BCE.
Kalinga War (261 BCE): Ashoka waged a war against the Kalinga Kingdom as he considered war and annexation as the , rightful duty of a King. It was this, imperialistic consideration that prompted Ashoka to conquer Kalinga. Rock Edict , XIII of Ashoka tells us that the war ended with bloodshed and misery. One lakh people died, 1.5 lakh were taken as prisoners of war. This event had a deep impact on his mind. Kalinga war was the turning point in the life of Ashoka becuase after the war he embraced Buddhism by the influence of Upagupta and followed the principles of non-violence.
Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of all that bloodshed, that this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. He changed his foreign policy from ‘Digvijaya or Bherighosha’ (Beating of war drums) to ‘ Dharmaghosha or Vijaya (winning the hearts of the people). He declared that “The real conquest was the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. Ashoka did not wage any war further and dedicated his whole life for the propagation of Dharma and Peace. Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanistan in the North to Karnataka in the South, from Bengal in the East to Sindu and Baluchisthan in the West.
Edicts of Ashoka: Ashoka issued a number of Inscriptions which throw light on the religion, society and administration of the Mauryans. Ashokan inscriptions are found throughout the extent of his Empire. The languages of these edicts were Pali and Prakriti and the script used was Brahmi and Kharoshti. Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a longtime was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. Ashokan inscriptions are found in places like Pataliputra, Rampurava, Rummindei, Sravasti, Bodhgaya, Bhabru, Barabara, Sanchi, KaUsambi, Maski, Taxila etc., The edicts are classified into
- Major rock edicts
- Minor rock edicts
- Pillar inscriptions and
- Cave inscriptions
Edicts in Karnataka: A number of Ashokan edicts have been discovered in Karnataka. They have been found at Maski (Raichur dist). Gavimatha and Palkigonda (Koppal Dist), Siddapur, Brahmagiri and Jatingarameshwar (Ch itradurga dist) Nittur and U dayagollam (Bellary Dist) and Sannathi (Yadagiri). Most of the edicts ofAshoka, preach moral values to the people and about the teachings of Buddha. The Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to King Ashoka as ‘Devanampriya Asokasa’.
Thus these edicts helped in identifying the other edicts of Ashoka. He wanted to inculcate the virtues of practical morality, compassion to animals, reverence and obedience to teachers,elders & parents, truthfulness etc. Religion: Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. He believed that a moral life was a pre-requisite of happy life. He propogated the ideas of developing virtues like truthfulness, purity of thought, kindness, honesty, gratitude, self restraint and compassion. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and leading a good moral life.
The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha and Dharma. Ashoka took many measures for the spread of Buddhism. He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha. He constructed monasteries and gave liberal grants to them. He followed the policy of religious tolerance. He assumed the title ‘Devanmapriya’ (beloved of the Gods). He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rock edicts throughout the Empire.
He appointed officers called Dharmamaha mathras, Yukthas, Rajjukas and Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to spread Dharma among the people. Ashoka organised the 3rd Buddhist council at Pataliputra in 250 BCE, to settle the internal differences among the Buddhists. He took much interest and adopted special measures to propagate Buddhism. He sent Buddhist missionaries to far off lands to preach the Gospel of Buddha. He deputed his son Mahendra amd daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.
It was on account of his extensive propagation that Buddhism became a religion of the masses in India and also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma and many South-East Asian Countries. He took many welfare activities and made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled people. He was concerned with the moral and spiritual welfare of his people. H.G. Wells remarks that “Amidst the tens of thousands of Majesties and Royal Highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines along like a Star”.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammed Bin Thughlaq.
Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
(a) Register of the land revenue: Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
(b) Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were unable to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
(c) Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE:
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:
(1) (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
(2) He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital. Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.
The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony etc resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected ‘ energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
(d) Token currency circulation in 1329 CE: Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert. The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
- People could not grasp its real significance
- Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
- Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
- People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history.
He lacked practical judgment and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though
well-meant were ill planned and badly executed.
Give the contributions of Sultanates of Delhi.
Contributions of the Delhi Sultanates
(a) Administration: The Kingdom o Delhi Sultanate was a theocrati state, (retigion was Islam). ‘Sharia (Islamic law) were the rules of the state. The ‘Ulema (Islamic scholar controlled the state and administration. The Sultans called themselves ‘Naib’ (deputy) of Kalifa.
(b) Central Government: Sultan was the head of administration. He exercised the legislative, executive and judicial powers. He was guided by the Ulemas. Allauddin kept the Ulemas away from the state affairs. The Sultan carried the administration with the help of a number of ministers.
They were the Wazir (the Prime minister incharge of revenue and finance), Ariz-i-Mamlik who was incharge of the military, Amir-i-Mazlis who was incharge of royal forts and conferences, Barid-i-Mumalik – head of the state news agency, Dahir-i- mumalik – incharge of the royal correspondences, Sadar-us-Sadur who handled religious matters and Kazi-ul-Qazat- the Chief Justice.
(c) Revenue: Land revenue was the main source of the state income. The war booty, tributes, house, water, religious and Jaziya taxes etc were the other sources of income to the state. Land tax could be paid either in cash or kind.
(d) Judicial: The Sultans administered justice with the help of Kazi-ul-Qazat (The chief Justice). The chief Kazi was helped by a Mufti (interpreter of Islamic law). The towns and cities had courts headed by Kazis and assisted by Muftis. Kotwal was the Police officer in charge of law and order.
Army: The Sultan maintained a strong army. It consisted of cavalry, infantry and elephant forces. The Sultanate was primarily a military state. The Sultan was the supreme commander. All ministers and officers except the chief Justice and the Khazis were to render both civil and military duties. Diwan-i-Ariz was incharge of army administration. The pay of the soldiers varied according to their service.
Provincial administration: The Sultanate (Kingdom) was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Iqtas’. The head of a province was called ‘Naib Sultan’. They enjoyed absolute power in their provinces. The main duties were collection of revenue and maintenance of law and order within the province. They maintained an army of their own. Some Sultans transferred the Governors and punished them severely, if they revolted against the state.
Each province was divided into ‘Shiqs and Paraganas’. They were looked after by Shiqdars and Amils respectively. Village was the primary unit of administration. It had traditional officers such as the Chaudhari, the Patwari, the Chaukidar etc.
Literature: This period finessed the growth of Persian and regional language literature. Persian poets of Central Asia took shelter in the courts of the Sultans of Delhi. Amir Khusru was the most outstanding writer and he was called the ‘Parrot of India’. He wrote Khazyan-ul- Putuh and Tarkish-i-Alai. Amir Hasan Dehalvi wrote sonnets. Badruddin, Maulana Moinuddin, Umramand Hassan Nizami were some of the great Persian writers. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak and Firoz Shah Tughalak were great scholars. Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta were great historians of the Tughalak period. Barani started the Tarik-i-Firoz Shahi and it was completed by Shams-i-Siraj Afif. Chand Bardai wrote Prithiviraja Raso, Malik Mohammad Jayasi wrote Padmavati. There was encouragement for translating works from Sanskrit to Persian.
Art and Architecture: The Sultanate of Delhi introduced the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. It represents a synthesis of the two religious ideals like Hinduism and Islam. The important features of the Indo-Islamic movements are minarates, arches, domes, hazaras. large gateways etc., Quwat-ul- Islam, Mosque at Delhi and Adai-Dinka- Jhampara Mosque at Ajmer were the earliest creations. Qutub minar was started by Qutubuddin Aibak and completed by Iltumash. Hauz-i-Shamsi, Jami Masjid and Shamsi Idgah were built by Iltumash. Jami masjid is one of the largest and most ‘ beautiful buildings. Allauddin built the palace of Hazar situm (Palace of 1000 pillars), the fort of Siri, Jamait Khan Masjid and the Alai Darwaza at Delhi. Firoz Shah was the greatest of the builders. He laid out the cities of Firozabad. Fatehbad and ’ Janpur.
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called as the “Maker of Modern Mysore” – Explain.
Samudragupta (335 to 375 CE): The most outstanding ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta, who was the ’ son and successor of Chandragupta-I. He was an ambitious, ablest and most distinguished ruler and wanted to be an ‘Emperor’ (Chakravarthi).
The Allahabad pillar inscription (Prayag) throws much light on his conquests and personal qualities. The author of this edict was Harisena, the court poet as well as the commander-in-chief of Samudragupta. It is in Sanskrit prose and verse and contains 33 lines. The inscription is in the nature of a prasasti (ponegric). The military conquests mentioned in the inscription may be divided into four distinct campaigns.
(a) Northern campaign (Aryavartha):
The early years of his reign were spent in subduing the provinces of the Gangetic plain called ‘Aryavartha’. According to the inscription, he defeated nine Kings in his northern campaign and annexed their territories into his Empire. The Rulers who were defeated by Samudragupta were
- Mathila and
After the conquest, he performed Ashwamedha yaga and became the master of Aryavartha.
(b) Conquest of the Forest Kingdoms (Central India): Samudragupta conquered the forest. Kingdoms of Abhiras, Madrakas, Kakas, Reva, Jabalpur, Nagpur and Bhaghelkhanda in the upper Vindya regions, many of whom surrendered to him voluntarily.
(c) Southern Campaign: After consolidating his authority in the north, he turned his attention towards the South and took an expedition. Samudragupta derived his name and fame by his compaigns in South India and he did not extend his direct rule over this region. The inscription refers to the twelve Kings of the south who were defeated and later reinstated to rule under him.
- Mahendra of Kosala.
- Vyagraraja of Mahaknathara,
- Mantaraja of Kowrala.
- Mahendra of Pistapura.
- Swamydatta of Kottura
- Damana of Yarandapalli
Educational reforms: Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourage education among the economically and socially backward classes. Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major educational institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.
His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore University in 1916 at Mysore and, the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and literature, Irrigational scheme: He understood the needs of the fanners. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water.K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at [ (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result,150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya
and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty canals, tanks and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage. systems were introduced. Railway reforms: Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore-Arasikere and Bowringpete -, Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Maratha Company were brought under the State control.
Relief works: During Sir. M.Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the First World War (1914-18) broke out. This led to a severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices. Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable sen ice to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, the British Government honoured him with Knightood in 1915. in 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
Part – F
VI. Match the Following : 5 x 1 = 5
1. Rajendra – Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava.
2. Pampa – Gangai Konda Chola.
3. KanhojiAngrey – Adikavi.
4. Lord Dalhousie – Admiral of the Marathas.
5. Alur Venkata Rao – Doctrine of Lapse.
- Gangai KondaChola.
- Admiral of the Marathas
- Doctrine of Lapse.
- Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava
Arrange the following in chronological order. 5 x 1 = 5
a. Establishment of Aryasamaja (1875 C.E.).
b. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal (1581 C.E.).
c. Birth of Basaveshwara (1132 C.E.)
d. Accession of Kanishka (120 C.E.)
e. The Battle of Kannegala (1118 C.E.)
d. Accession of Kanishka (120 C.E.),
e. The Battle of Kannegala (1118 C.E.)
c. Birth of Basaveshwara (1132 C.E.)
b. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal (1581 C.E)
a. Establishment of Aryasamaja (1875 C.E.).