2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

2nd PUC Political Science Social Movements and their Political Implications Text Book Questions and Answers

I. One Mark Questions.

Question 1.
Who led the mass in the entry of Kalaram temple?
Answer:
Dr. B.R.Ambedkar.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 2.
How many Varnas prevailed in Vedic period?
Answer:
Five varnas.

Question 3.
Who started the news paper ‘Mooka Naika’?
Answer:
Dr. B.R.Ambedkar.

Question 4.
When was Manusmrithi implemented?
Answer:
185 BC.

Question 5.
Name the concept emphasized by Jyotiba Phule.
Answer:
Equal status and privileges for all.

Question 6.
What is social discrimination?
Answer:
Exploitation and denial of equal rights socially, economically and culturally.

Question 7.
What is economic exploitation?
Answer:
Denial of equal wages.

Question 8.
When the Mandal Commission Report was came into effect?
Answer:
7th Aug 1990.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 9.
Name the person who struggled to eradicate the Sati System.
Answer:
Sri Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Question 10.
When was the Widow Remarriage Act implemented?
Answer:
1856.

Question 11.
When was the National Women’s Commission established?
Answer:
1992.

Question 12.
Jyothiba Phule belongs to which state?
Answer:
Maharashtra.

Question 13.
When was the Domestic Violence Act enforced?
Answer:
2005.

Question 14.
ExpandAITUC.
Answer:
All India Trade Union Congress.

Question 15.
Expand INTUC.
Answer:
Indian National Trade Union Congress.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 16.
Expand CITU.
Answer:
Center For Trade Union.

Question 17.
Expand UTUC.
Answer:
United Trade Union Congress.

Question 18.
Expand HMP.
Answer:
Hind Mazdoor Party

Question 19.
Expand HMS.
Answer:
Hind Mazdoor Sabha.

Question 20.
Which day is celebrated as ‘Labours’ Day?
Answer:
1st May.

Question 21.
Which is the basic profession of farmers?
Answer:
Agriculture.

Question 22.
Expand BKU.
Answer:
Bharatiya Kisaan Union.

Question 23.
Expand NCIP.
Answer:
National Crop Insurance Programme.

Question 24.
Expand NAIS.
Answer:
National Agricultural Insurance Scheme.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 25.
Expand PLD.
Answer:
Primary Land Development Bank.

Question 26.
Expand NDC.
Answer:
National Development Council.

Question 27.
Expand KRRS.
Answer:
Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha.

Question 28.
Expand UDHR.
Answer:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Question 29.
Expand NHRC.
Answer:
National Human Rights Commission.

Question 30.
When was the Human Rights Commission established in Karnataka?
Answer:
2005.

Question 31.
When was the National Human Rights Commission established?
Answer:
8th January 1994.

Question 32.
Name the head who protects the human rights in district.
Answer:
Deputy Commissioner.

Question 33.
Who is a architect of CHIPCO Movement?
Answer:
Chandi Prasad Bhat.

Question 34.
Who is an architect of APPICO Movement?
Answer:
Sundar Lai Bahuguna.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 35.
Who is a main leader of Narmada Bachavo Andolan?
Answer:
Baba Ampte and Medha patkar.

Question 36.
Who filed an Affidavit in the Supreme Court for Ganga water cleaning?
Answer:
Sri. M.C. Mehta.

Question 37.
When was the Bio-Diversity Act came into effect?
Answer:
2002.

Question 38.
Which is the native district of Saalumarada Thimmakka?
Answer:
Raraanagara District.

Question 39.
Who started the Western Ghat Movement?
Answer:
Cycle jotas.

Question 40.
Which day is celebrated as the ‘World Environment Day’?
Answer:
5th June.

II. Two Marks Questions.

Question 1.
Who started the Dalita Sangarsh Samiti in Karnataka and when?
Answer:
In 1974 by Gopala Swamy Iyer.

Question 2.
Who are Dalits?
Answer:
Dalits are the fifth or last of the Vamashrrna darma, untouchables or panchamas.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 3.
What is the specialty of Dalit Act?
Answer:
‘The untouchability offenses Act’ 1976 is the Civil Rights Act. It declares that untouchability as an offence.

Question 4.
What is the popular slogan of Ambedkar?
Answer:
‘Educate, Agitate and Organise’ have faith in yourself.

Question 5.
Name the Vamas that prevailed in the ancient period.
Answer:
Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.

Question 6.
Name the persons who fought for the upliftment of Backward Classes.
Answer:
Jythiba pule of Maharashtra, Narayana Guru of Kerala, Periyar Ramaswamy Nikar of Tamil Nadu, Sayyaji Rao of Gaikwad, Nalwadi Krishna Raja Wodeyar, the maharaja of mysore, Sadhu Maharaj of Kolhapur.

Question 7.
When and where was the Backward Class Agitation started in Karnataka?
Answer:
In 1920, in Mysore province by Sri Kantharaje urs.

Question 8.
When did the Hindu Widow’s Home established and where?
Answer:
‘Hindu Widow’s Home’ was established by D.K. Karve in Poona in 1899.

Question 9.
Mention any two articles which eradicate the gender based inequality.
Answer:
Article 14,15.

Question 10.
Name any two Acts which relates to Women Protection.
Answer:

  • Rape (IPC sec 376)
  • Torture for dowry (IPC Sec 498-A)
  • Family court Act (1954)
  • Special Marriage Act (1954)

Question 11.
Name the two important Communist leaders of India.
Answer:
S.A. Dange and E.M.S. Namboodaripad.

Question 12.
Write the meaning of laborers.
Answer:
Laborers are workers who invest their physical labor either in agriculture or industry.

Question 13.
Write any two Labour Acts.
Answer:

  1. Workmen compensation Act of 1923.
  2. Minimum wage pagement Act 1936.

Question 14.
Name any two leaders of Karnataka Raith Sangha Movement.
Answer:

  1. M.D. Nanjunda Swamy
  2. Choudary Charan Singh

Question 15.
What are the two important reasons for Kheda Movement?
Answer:

  1. The Bengal Govt banned the Blue crop and acquired farmers, lands.
  2. They imposed heavy taxes and enhanced prices.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 16.
What is the meaning of Human Rights?
Answer:
Human Rights are those which are inherent to the human beings entitled to enjoy without distinction of race, colour, religion, language, gender, birthplace, social, economic, political and other status.

Question 17.
What is ‘Maryada Hatye’?
Answer:
The loss of family respect and values during intercaste and inter-religious marriages prompt elders to Honour killing by the eleders ofthe family is ‘Maiyada Hatye’.

Question 18.
Name any two Acts which relates to the Protection of Environment.
Answer:

  1. Protection of Forest Act (1980).
  2. Regulation of Air PollutionAct (1981).

Question 19.
What is environment?
Answer:
Environment is the sum total of all biotic and abiotic (Living and nonliving) factors and conditions that surround and potentially influence organisms without becoming their constituent part. It includes climate, atmosphere, air, water, light, temperature, fire, soil etc.

III. Five Marks Questions.

Question 1.
What are the causes for Dalit Movement?
Answer:
1. Social Injustice:
The law states that all men are born equal. But in practice, equal status and equal opportunities are denied. Exploitation was wide spread. To get their legitimate rights and opportunities, the dalits rebelled under the leadership of many reformers. This rebellion turned into ‘Dalit Movement’ against injustice.

2. Economic inequality:
Dalits worked as laborers on the lands of upper caste Hindus. The upper caste feudalists became rich. But the dalits were treated inhumanely and were not given proper share, the status of the dalits was patheitic. They also became victions of exploitation, attrocity, harassment and other heniour acts. This exploded in the form of agitation.

3. Discrimination:
Was rampant. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar himself was a victim. When dalits were not allowed to enter the Kalaram Temple in Nasik, he dared to enter the temple against all opposition. He publicly used the water of Mahad tank. He started a democratic struggle against discrimination to attain social equality, this was the stepping stone for Dalit Movement.

4. Lack of Awareness:
Dalits were deprived of educational fa-cilities, which lead to lack of awareness. Hence, exploitation, attrocities mounted, to getrelieved of such situation and to creat awareness, movements like Bahishkrith Hitakasthi Sabha (1924), Dalit Panther Movement (1972) Dalit Sangarsh Sahithi (1974) and many more cropped up.

5. Political Backwardness:
Basically dalits were away from political participation, decision making process due to denial of opportunities. Social boycott, exploitation, subordination were responsible to political backwardness. To come out of there barriers, dalits were forced to organise agitations and protests which finally converted into movements.

Political Implications:
Dalit movement is named as Dalit Aandolana in Karnataka, Asprushya (untouch-able). Aandolan in Maharastra, Adi Dravida Aandolan in Tamilnadu, Pulaya Aandolan in kerala, Adi Dharma Andolan in Punjab and Namasudra Aandolan in west Bengal. As a result of Dalit movements, post Independence period several measures were taken to improve the position of dalits.

Constitution of India has provided many provisions for the upliftment of Dalits and bring them to the main stream. Many rights have been in corporated to empower dalits.

II-Constitutional Provisions:

  1. Equality before law (Art 14)
  2. Prohibition of discrimination of the basis of castes etc {(Art 15(1) and (2)}
  3. Special provisions for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or SC’s and ST’s {Art- 15(4)}
  4. Equality of opportunity in matters of publie employment and right to reservation in appointment and promotion (Art-16)
  5. Abolition of untouchability {Art (17)}
  6. The state shall promote welfare of the people, minimize inequalities in income and estimate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities (Art 38)
  7. The state shall direct its policy towards securing right to adequate means of liveli-hood {(Art 39 (a)}
  8. Promotion of educational and economic interests of SC’s and ST’s Local self government {Art:243D and 243T}
  9. Reservation of seats for SC’s and ST’s local self governments {Art 243D and 243T}
  10. Reservation of seats Lok sabha and State Assemblies {Art 330 and 332}.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 2.
What are the causes for Backward Class Movement?
Answer:
Backward classes are those communities who are economically, socially, educationally backward. These exploited, suppressed and oppressed classes are backward classes in which Dalits are not included. Kuruba, Bestha, Nayinda, Madiwala, Kumbara, Devadasi, Kammara, Tigala and IdigaS etc. To gain equal status and privileges in the society, efforts were made by leaders like Jyothiba Pule in 1838.

He started ‘Akshara Kranthi’ for shudra community especially women along with his wife Savithviba Phule. He demanded Schools, Hostels for students of B.C.7 5 It spread to other parts ofthe country. Narayana Guru of Kerala, periyar Ramswamy Naicker of T.N etc fought for upliftment of BC’s.
Causes:

  1. Social Discrimination: These communities faced social discrimination like superior and inferior for a long time. They were not allowed to come to the mainstream. Hence they started to agitate for reforms in post-independence India.
  2. Exploitation led to inequality of BCS many BCS were ‘below poverty line’. (BPL).
  3. Educational Backwardness: Upper castes had monopolised the field of education. The BC’s agitated for the fundamental right to education and starting agitation against upper castes.
  4. Denial of Political Representation: Only a few communities dominated the political field. BC’s were neglected. During 1920’s, an agitation was started in mysore province by BCs to get political participation to non-Brahimins led by Kantharaje Urs.
  5. Unification: The BCs united and integrated to achieve upliftment of their communities. Morethan 350 BCs were unorganized and scattered. Movements were started to motivate and unite the BCs.

Question 3.
What are the causes for Faminist Movement?
Answer:
Though Indian women played an eminent role in the society since vedic periods, gradually they were depended of this status. They were relegated to home making and raising children.
Causes:
1. Inequality:
Indian society is male dominated and preference was given to men. Though men and women were born equally and the constitution has upheld this equality; women were deprived of education, employment, decision making and property rights. Thus the enraged feminists rose imagitation.

2. Evils of Dowry:
The evil of dowry made the parents of women debtors. Girls were sold to Grothers. Women were regarded as burden and led to female foeticide mid infanticide. The sex ratio was uneven. This led to harassment and exploitation of women in society like raper and other heinous crimes.

3. Women were denied human rights, right to life, freedom of expression etc. They were dependent on the mercy of men. This led to attrocities on women. Decision making was the birth right ofmenin matters of education, marriage, property,rights and family Issues.

4. Social Strata Based on Gender:
The cultural, social religious, political field was monopolised by men. These led to attrocities on women. They were treated as slaves and bonded labourers. The women organised themselves to start agitation.

5. Sexual Abuse and Molestation:
Irrespective of age, time and place, heinous crimes were committed on women. To regain the right to decide about children or to get abortion without the interference of husbands or politicians through governmental policies, women are uniting together and fighting for justice.

6. Domestic violence:
Women shoulder the responsibility of saving and caring children, domestic work and related house hold tasks. They became victims of domestic violence, because of irresponsible, illiterate and drunkard husbands who lack discretion. Physical, mental and sexual harassment began to take toll of women’s life; to avoid such violence, women’s organisations were established.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 4.
Write a note about Domestic Violence?
Answer:
Indian society is male dominated. The position of women in Indian society is degrading. They are deprived of eduction, freedom, equality, property rights and social status. The activities of women is restricted to home making. This inequality had made men to subjugate women and to various kinds of atrocities.

The women have to shoulder the responsibility of the entire houshold and also in raring children. The husbands or in laws may sometimes be illiterate and prone to evil habits. So women in such house holds maybe subjected to illtreatment, physically, mentally, and sexually and socially. Men find women easy prey to their whims and fancies. Many a times, such women, can’t bear the torture and commit suicide.

They are haressed for dowry also. Many women have organised themselves and have agitated for adequate protection through constitutional measures. Women have been provided special privileges. The National Commission for Women was established in 1992. The HRD ministry has launched programmes for empowerment of women.

Question 5.
What are the causes for Labour Movement?
Answer:
Labourers are those workers who invest their physical labour either on agriculture or industry The wages they get for their work is their livelihood. But in most of the cases they are not getting the minimum wages and they work under mysterious conditions which many a times take their toll. For want of congenial working conditions and adequate wages they unite together and go for agitation.
Causes:
1. Interest of Labourers:
Generally industrialists concentrate on profit making rather than the welfare of the workers. Labourers are exploited by giving less wages not declaring bonus, extended hours of work, denial of medical facilities, dismissal from service etc. To overcome such Situations, the affected labourers organise and voice their grievances through agitetions which lead to labour movements. During 1920 ‘All India Trade Union Congress (ALTUC) was organised and got legal recognition by the then British Govt in India.

2. Negligence towards employees:
The matters concerning to labourers were decided unilaterally by the apex body of the company. Naturally the interests of labourers were neglected As a result, hostile relation ship developed between labourers and management. The labourers started agitation to have a share in decision making process of the apex body and to protect their interests and to enhance their status.

3. To Get facilities:
The labourers are engaged in strenous, monotonous physical labour. They need breaks in between. Proper facilities for both, male and female workers as per requirements to demand facilities like safe drinking water, cafeteria, toilet facilities, rest rooms, creaches, medical facilities etc.

4. Welfare programmes:
The welfare and well being of employees decides the fate of industries. Many labour organisations were formed to demand and get social security measures like Bonus, Allowances, Loans, Insurance, Free quarters, Transport and Education facilities, Workmen Compensation, Pension, Family Pension etc.

5. Plight of Workers of unorganised sectors:
Anganwadi workers, agricultural labourers, workers on daily wages are exploited to the core as they are still fighting for their rights. This led to agitations and movements.

Question 6.
Discuss the political implications of Labour Movement.
Answer:
The Government of India has taken measures to provide welfare programmes, to meet the demands of labour organisations.
1. Constitutional Measures:
Part IV of the Indian constitution deals with the Directive Principles of State policy and directs the State Govt to adopt socialist measures like equal pay for equal work for both men and women, to provide leave facilities for pregnant women for both prnatal and postnatal care. The concurrent list empowers the Governments to legislate on the workers welfare.

2. Government of India has made Legislation on personal labour laws:
The Labour laws of 1970 have fixed the wages of workers appointed on contract basis Workment Compensation Act of 1923, salary payment Act of 1936, weekly Holiday Act of 1942, Minimum Wages Act of 1948 Employees State Insurance Act of 1948.

Employees Provident Fund Act of 1952, Bonus Act of 1965. The celebration of ‘May Day’ throughout the world on Ist May every year proves the significance of labour force and the movement.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 7.
What are the main causes for Peasant’s Movement?
Answer:
India is basically an Agricultural Economy. India is a land of villages and farmers are its back-bone. Various factors have led to peasants’ movements.
Causes:
1. Feeling of Deprivation:
Peasants were deprived of the facilities lems like shortage of quality seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides, adequate price and support price, loans and subsidies for agricultural implements, insurance for crops, have united the farmers to agitate for their demands.

2. Negligence of problems faced by Farmers:
The then british Govt in India had neglected the agricultural sector. The erstwhile Bengal Govt had banned Blue crop and acquired the farmers land. They had also imposed heavy taxes and enhanced the prices. This led to the Kheda Movement.

3. Unbearable Debts:
Peasants take loans from the Banks and Financial institutions to carry out agricultural activites. But they can’t repay the loans because they may not get correct prices for their crops due to market fluctuations and the unethical tactis of brokers. The farmers are entrapped in the maze of debts and interests.

Many may be forced to commit sucide. The . family is affected and the moral of others peasants is degraded such incidents creates horror and the enaraged peasants, lead protests and Agitations.

4. Natural calamity:
Agriculture is a game of luck. Lack of proper irrigation facilities force peasants to depend upon the monsoon rains which is of ten erractic and irregular. Indian Agriculture is a gamble with monsoons. Floods, Famines, crop diseases, soil erosion, infertility of soil force the farmers to become victims and they agitate.

5. Unscientific land acquisition:
Rapid urbanization sfrialization lands of farmers. When land is acquired the farmers are not paid adequate compensation or not provided with alternate lands. The Farmers become landless and unemployed such measures of the Govt lead to agitations.

6. Support price:
Amidst innumerable problems, farmers do not get adequnate price for their produce. At that time the Government has to intervene and announce support price for the formers pro-duce. Often Govts fail to do so and farmers agitate.

Question 8.
Discuss about unscientific land acquisition.
Answer:
Fertile and cultivable, arable hands of formers are oftem acquired for industrialization and urbanization. The farmers are not paid adequate compensation. The formers also have to wait for years to get compensation. Middlemen suck the profits and touts siphon off the farmer’s compensation, farmers are not provided alternate lands or may be given unarable lands as compensation. Politicians become landless and also lose their compensation to vices. Thus leading to poverty and unemployment.

Question 9.
What are the causes for Human Rights Movement?
Answer:
Human Rights are those rights which are inherent to the human beings and are entitled to enjoy without distinction of race, colour, religion, language, gender, birth, place, social, economic, political and other status.

Right to life, liberty, equality and dignity of all human beings are guaranteed under the constitution and embodied in the international covenents and enforceable by law court. But violations of human rights in many countries have led international organisations to take measures to protect them at global levels.
The causes of human rights violations movement are.
1. To protect civil liberty:
Though all men are bom equal and have the liberty to shape their own lives, human rights violations is widespread. The constitution of India has guaranteed these rights in the part III to its citizens. But dalits, women and children are being supressed and exploited. To avoid such aftrocities, human rights activists are struggling hard to create awamess.

2. To Remove slavery:
Slavery is constitutionally banned but is active in many parts of the country. Child labour and bonded labour are seen frequently. Hence protests have become inevitable.

3. To protect family life:
Every citizen has the right to family life. Due to modernisation many youths are heading towards inter-caste and inter religious marriages; elders of family to maintain fomily respect and values go to the extent of ‘Maryada hatye’ of the women and youth. Dowry harassment many a times ends up in either suicide or murder.

4. To protect the right of dalits:
Injustice, attroities, social ostracism, madae snana, dalits are. forced to carry night soil of the upper castes. Such human rights violation led to protests.

5. Reject to file ceses:
Though the aggrieved persons approach the authorities to file the cases of rights violations, it is not filed due to interference ofpoliticians and dominant castes. Many times, the authorities do not respond positively and do not provide medical aid when required. Most cases are not highlighted. Human rights organisations have to lead protests and Agitations.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 10.
What are the causes for Environment Movement?
Answer:
Protection of our environment is the need of the hour for human beings to survive and lead a healthy life. But greedy human beings are exploiting the natural resources indiscriminately leading to environmental degradation. This unethical exploitation of natural resources and loss of bio-diversity has led to environment protection movements.
Causes:
1. To protect the environmental degradation:
The Govt of India has taken measures for economic development including industrial and technological development. This has led to industrilization, urbanization and their adverse effects like loss of cultivable land on the fertility of soil.

2. To protect Biodiversity:
Rampart deforestation for fuel and construction has left the wild life and birds without forests cover. Hence movements like Chipco, Appico and save Western ghats movements started. ‘

3. Environmental education and consciousness
To create awareness and consciousness among human beings NGOs have started formal education in schools and colleges. Programmes, rallies and jathas are organised to create awareness.

4. To curb environmental decoy:
The greediness of the human beings has led to encavate and exploit natural resources leading to soil erosim, drying up of rivers and reservoirs, air and water pollution, sound pollution etc. To maintain equilibrium and to pressurize the people in the Govt to take adequate measures, movements have started.

Question 11.
What are the political implications for Environment Movement?
Answer:
The 42nd constitutional amendment (1976) in part IV-Directive Principles of State policy as provided for environmental protection. The Govt of India has established the National Committee For Environmental Planing under , the dept, of science and technology. In 1985 , the Environment and Forest secretariat was established. Political implications for environmental movements.
1. Ganga water cleaning plan:
A prominent environmentalist shri M.C.Mehta filed an affidavit in Supreme Court with regarding to cleaning of Ganga river water. The honourable court directed the union Govt, to frame a plan. The expert Ganga water Committee recommended the following measures.

  • Establising a processing unit to clean the drainage water near the river basin.
  • To stop throwing dead bodies into the river and suggested to construct 28 crematoriums.
  • Protection and Maintanance of Taj Mahal.

2. Krishnan Maharajan committee:
Sri S.K.Ghosh and R.C.Trivedi conducted a study on the factors responsible for pollution in and around the Tajmahal, one of the world heritage sites. It submitted its report in 1996 to the central Govt stating that suitable measures are to be taken to protect the monument of love for future generations.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

3. Legislation – The Govt of India has made legislations as follows:

  • Protection of Wild Life Act -1972
  • Water Pollution and Regulation Act of 1974
  • Protection of Forest Act of 1980
  • Regulation of Air pollution Act of 1981
  • Environmental Maintenance Act of 1986.
  • Bio-diversity Act of 2002.

States and union govts have taken measures to legislate on environment protection based on the guidelines of union govt. The Govt of Karnataka has opened Regional offices in Bangalore, Davangere, Mangalore, Raichur, Hassan, Dharwad, Belgaum, Gulbarga, Bidar and Tumkur to protect the environment effectively.

Three Divisional offices have also been started in Dharwad, Mangalore and Gulbarga, Measures to punish the violaters of the laws have been taken.

IV. Ten Marks Questions.

Question 1.
Explain the causes and political implications for Dalit Movement.
Answer:
1. Social Injustice:
The law states that all men are born eual. But in practice, equal status and equal opportunities are denied. Exploitation was wide spread. To getq their legitimate rights and opportunities, the dalits rebelled under the leadership of many reformers. This rebellion turned into ‘Dalit Movement’ against injustice.

2. Economic inequality:
Dalits worked as labourers on the lands of upper caste Hindus. The upper caste feudalists became rich. But the dalits were treated inhumanely and were not given proper share, the status of the dalits was pathetic. They also became victims of exploitation, atrocity, harassment and other heniour acts. This exploded in the form of agitation.

3. Discrimination:
Was rampant. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar himself was a victim. When dalits were not allowed to enter the Kalaram Temple in Nasik, he dared to enter the temple against all opposition. He publicly used the water of Mahad tank. He started a democratic struggle against discrimination to attain social equality, this was the stepping stone for Dalit Movement.

4. Lack of Awareness:
Dalits were deprived of educational fa-cilities, which lead to lack of awareness. Hence, exploitation, attrocities mounted, to getrelieved of such situation and to creat awareness, movements like Bahishkrith Hitakasthi Sabha (1924), Dalit Panther Movement (1972) Dalit Sangarsh Sahithi (1974) and many more cropped up.

5. Political Backwardness:
Basically dalits were away from political participation, decision making process due to denial of opportunities. Social boycott, exploitation, subordination were responsible to political backwardness. To come out of there barriers, dalits were forced to organise agitations and protests which finally converted into movements.

Political Implications:
Dalit movement is named as Dalit Aandolana in Karnataka, Asprushya (untouchable). Aandolan in Maharastra, Adi Dravida Aandolan in Tamilnadu, Pulaya Aandolan in kerala, Adi Dharma Andolan in Punjab and Namasudra Aandolan in west Bengal. As a result of Dalit movements, post Independence period several measures were taken to improve the position of dalits.

Constitution of India has provided many provisions for the upliftment of Dalits and bring them to the main stream. Many rights have been in corporated to empower dalits.

II-Constitutional Provisions:

  1. Equality before law (Art 14)
  2. Prohibition of discrimination of the basis of castes etc {(Art 15(1) and (2)}
  3. Special provisions for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or SC’s and ST’s {Art- 15(4)}
  4. Equality of opportunity in matters of publie employment and right to reservation in appointment and promotion (Art-16)
  5. Abolition of untouchability {Art (17)}
  6. The state shall promote welfare of the people, minimize inequalities in income and estimate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities (Art 38)
  7. The state shall direct its policy towards securing right to adequate means of livelihood {(Art 39 (a)}
  8. Promotion of educational and economic interests of SC’s and ST’s Local self governament {Art:243D and 243T}
  9. Reservation of seats for SC’s and ST’s local self governaments {Art 243D and 243T}
  10. Reservation of seats Lok sabha and State Assemblies {Art 330 and 332}.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 2.
What are the causes and political implications for Backward Class Movement?
Answer:
Backward classes are those communities who are economically, socially, educationally backward. These exploited, suppressed and oppressed classes are backward classes in which Dalits are not included. Kuruba, Bestha, Nayinda, Madiwala, Kumbara, Devadasi, Kammara, Tigala and IdigaS etc. To gain equal status and privileges in the society, efforts were made by leaders like Jyothiba Pule in 1838.

He started ‘Akshara Kranthi’ for shudra community especially women along with his wife Savithviba Phule. He demanded Schools, Hostels for students of B.C.7 5 It spread to other parts ofthe country. Narayana Guru of Kerala, periyar Ramswamy Naicker of T.N etc fought for the upliftment of BC’s.
Causes:

  1. Social Discrimination: These communities faced social discrimination like superior and inferior for a long time. They were not allowed to come to the mainstream. Hence they started to agitate for reforms in post-independence India.
  2. Exploitation led to inequality of BCS many BCS were ‘below poverty line’. (BPL).
  3. Educational Backwardness: Upper castes had monopolised the field of education. The BC’s agitated for the fundamental right to education and starting agitation against upper castes.
  4. Denial of Political Representation: Only a few communities dominated the political field. BC’s were neglected. During 1920’s, an agitation was started in mysore province by BCs to get political participation to non-Brahimins led by Kantharaje Urs.
  5. Unification: The BCs united and integrated to achieve upliftment of their communities. Morethan 350 BCs were unorganised and scattered. Movements were started to motivate and unite the BCs.

Political Implications:
The causes and the backward class movement led to many political implications. Sayyaji Rao Gaikwad of Gwalior was the first to implement and introduce reservation to BCs. Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar, the Maharaja of Mysore formed a commission headed by leslic milter in 1918 to go in to the details of BCS and find solutions.

His majesty sri Maharaja of Mysore appointed sri Kantharaje Urs who belonged to Backward classes as Diwan of Mysore state who implemented the recommendations of the commission and provided 50% reservation to those classes. Sri Venkata Krishnaiah popularly known as Thataiah of mysore and Shri Kungadiyappa of Doddabalapur started Educational institutions for the sake of BCs.

Constitutional Provisions:

  1. The constitution of India provides reservation in public employment in favour of BCs under Art 16(4)
  2. According to Art 340 the President of India is authorized to appoint National Backward classes Commission.
  3. To provide loan and financial assistance to the people of other castes who are below poverty line, National Backward classes Finance and Development Corporation is formed.
  4. All states of the Indian union can form Backward Classes Commissions and Development Corporations. In Karnataka Devaraj Urs Development Corporation is functioning.
  5. The National Human Rights commission (NHRC) receives complaints against the violations of rights and discrimination against women, scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other backward classes.

Other Provisions:

  1. The govt of India appointed backward classes commission headed by Kaka Kalekar in 1953.
  2. The union Govt appointed one more com-mission headed by sri B.P.Mandal in 1979. It submitted its report in 1980 and came into effect on 7th August 1990. It identified 3743 castes and communities as Backward caste and communities which formed 52% of the total Population. Some of the recommendations of the commission are
    • The Other Backward Classes (OBC’s) have to be provided 27% reservation in employment. It encompasses the services that come under the jurisdiction of both central and state govt including technical and professional institutions.
    • If the OBCs are selected in open competition, they should not be brought under 27% reservation and have to be treated as general. This also applies to promotion.
    • In case of backlog it should be preserved for three years.
    • The maximum age limit should be enhanced for appointment of SC’s and ST’s.
  3. Dr. Nanjegowd Committee (1960), L.G Haavnur Committee (1972), Chinappa Reddy Commission (1977) Venkataswamy Commission (1783) have done a commendable job in this direction.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 3.
Describe the causes and political im-plications for Feminist Movement.
Answer:
Though Indian women played an eminent role in the society since vedic periods, gradually they were depended of this status. They were relegated to home making and raising children.
Causes:
1. Inequality:
Indian society is male dominated and preference was given to men. Though men and women were bom equally and the constitution has upheld this equality; women were deprived of education, employment, decision making and property rights. Thus the enraged feminists rose inagitation.

2. Evils of Dowry:
The evil of dowry made the parents of women debtors. Girls were sold to Grothers. Women were regarded as burden and led to female foeticide mid infanticide. The sex ratio was uneven. This led to harassment and ex-ploitation of women in society like raper and other heinous crimes.

3. Women were denied human rights, right to life, freedom of expression etc. They were dependent on the mercy of men. This led to attrocities on women. Decision making was the birth right ofmenin matters of education, marriage, property,rights and family Issues.

4. Social Strata Based on Gender:
The cultural, social religious, political field was monopolised by men. These led to attrocities on women. They were treated as slaves and bonded labourers. The women organised themselves to start agitation.

5. Sexual Abuse and Molestation:
Irrespective of age, time and place, heinous crimes were committed on women. To regain the right to decide about children or to get abortion without the interference of husbands or politicians through governmental policies, women are uniting together and fighting for justice.

6. Domestic violence:
Women shoulder the responsibility of saving and caring children, domestic work and related house hold tasks. They became victims of domestic violence, because of irresponsible, illiterate and drunkard husbands who lack discretion. Physical, mental and sexual harassment began to take toll of women’s life; to avoid such violence, women’s organisations were established.

Political Implications:
The Feminest movement has tried to over-come exploitation of women and to stop attrocities against them. The feminist movement has led to the awareness of the Govt towards the causes and the Govt of India has provided constitutional facilities to empower women.
1. Constitutionl opportunities:
Art 14,15,15(3), 16,34(A), 39(B) and 42 provides for the removal of inequality and discrimintion based on gender.

2. Legislative measures:

  • Rape (IPC Sec-376)
  • Kidnapping and using women for illegal purpose (IPC Sec 363-373)
  • Torture for dowry (IPC Sec- 498-A)

Special laws:

  • Family Court Act 1954
  • Special Marriage Act 1954
  • Hindu Marriage Act 1955
  • Abolition of Dowry Act 1961
  • Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971
  • Protection against Domestic violence Act 2005
  • Abolition of Child Marriage Act 2006.

3. Specialpririleges for women:
National Women Commission was eltablished in 1992 with a view to analyse the legal programmes and to go into the details of the constitutional provisions and make necesary recommendation to government for further improvements in that regard.

4. Reservation in Local bodies:
Through 73rd and 74th constitutional Amendment, 33% of seats are reserved for women in Local Self Government.

5. National Action plan for girl child:
To provide safe, bright and strong future for girls.

6. National policy on the women empowerment:
Department of Women and Child Wei- fare under the secretariat of Human resource Development framed a national policy for the empowerment of women; some of the programmes and plans by the Government of India are

  • Employment assurance scheme 1993.
  • National Social Assistance programme 1995.
  • Swama Jayanthi Shahari Rojgar Yojna 1997.
  • Jawahar Gram Sumrudbi Yojana 1999.
  • Swama Jayanthi Gram Swaraj Yojna 1999.
  • Indira Awas Yojna 1999.

The Govt of Karnataka has taken the following measures.

  • Udyogini Yojna.
  • Mahila Tarabeti Yojna.
  • Rehabilitation Programme of Devadasis.
  • Stop Yojna.
  • Stree Shakthi Yojna.
  • Santana Yojana.
  • Amrutha Yojnaa.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 4.
Explain the causes and political implications for Labour Movement.
Answer:
Laborers are those workers who invest their physical labour either on agriculture or industry The wages they get for their work is their livelihood. But in most of the cases they are not getting the minimum wages and they work under mysterious conditions which many a times take their toll. For want of congenial working conditions and adequate wages they unite together and go for agitation.
Causes:
1. Interest of Labourers:
Generally industrialists concentrate on profit-making rather than the welfare of the workers. Labourers are exploited by giving less wages not declaring bonus, extended hours of work, denial of medical facilities, dismissal from service etc. To overcome such Situations, the affected labourers organise and voice their grievances through agitations which lead to labour movements. During 1920 ‘All India Trade Union Congress (ALTUC) was organised and got legal recognition by the then British Govt in India.

2. Negligence towards employees:
The matters concerning to labourers were decided unilaterally by the apex body of the company. Naturally the interests of labourers were neglected As a result, hostile relationship developed between labourers and management. The labourers started agitation to have a share in decision making process of the apex body and to protect their interests and to enhance their status.

3. To Get facilities:
The labourers are engaged in strenous, monotonous physical labour. They need breaks in between. Proper facilities for both, male and female workers as per requirements to demand facilities like safe drinking water, cafeteria, toilet facilities, restrooms, creaches, medical facilities etc.

4. Welfare programmes:
The welfare and well being of employees decides the fate of industries. Many labour organisations were formed to demand and get social security measures like Bonus, Allowances, Loans, Insurance, Free quarters, Transport and Education facilities, Workmen Compensation, Pension, Family Pension etc.

5. Plight of Workers of unorganised sectors:
Anganwadi workers, agricultural labourers, workers on daily wages are exploited to the core as they are still fighting for their rights. This led to agitations and movements.

The Government of India has taken measures to provide welfare programmes, to meet the demands of labour organisations.
A. Constitutional Measures:
Part IV of the Indian constitution deals with the Directive Principles of State policy and directs the State Govt to adopt socialist measures like equal pay for equal work for both men and women, to provide leave facilities for pregnant women for both prnatal and postnatal care. The concurrent list empowers the Governments to legislate on the workers welfare.

B. Government of India has made Legislation on personal labour laws:
The Labour laws of 1970 have fixed the wages of workers appointed on contract basis Workment Compensation Act of 1923, salary payment Act of 1936, weekly Holiday Act of 1942, Minimum Wages Act of 1948 Employees State Insurance Act of 1948. Employees Provident Fund Act of 1952, Bonus Act of 1965. The celebration of ‘May Day’ throughout the world on Ist May every year proves the significance of labour force and the movement.

Question 5.
Explain the causes and political implications for Peasant Movement.
Answer:
India is basically a Agricultural Economy. India is a land of villages and farmers are its back-bone. Various factors have led to peasants movements.
Causes:
1. Feeling of Deprivation:
Peasants were deprived of the facilities lems like shortage of quality seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides, adequate price and support price, loans and subsidies for agricultural implements, insurance for crops, have united the farmers to agitate for their demands.

2. Negligence of problems faced by Farmers:
The then british Govt in India had neglected the agricultural sector. The erstwhile Bengal Govt had banned Blue crop and acquired the farmers land. They had also imposed heavy taxes and enhanced the prices. This led to the Kheda Movement.

3. Unbearable Debts:
Peasants take loans from the Banks and Financial institutions to carry out agricultural activites. But they can’t repay the loans because they may not get correct prices for their crops due to market fluctuations and the unethical tactis of brokers.

The farmers are entrapped in the maze of debts and interests. Many may be forced to commit suicide. The . family is affected and the moral of others peasants is degraded such incidents creates horror and the enaraged peasants, lead protests and Agitations.

4. Natural calamity:
Agriculture is a game of luck. Lack of proper irrigation facilities force peasants to depend upon the monsoon rains which is of ten erratic and irregular. Indian Agriculture is a gamble with monsoons. Floods, Famines, crop diseases, soil erosion, infertility of soil force the farmers to become victims and they agitate.

5. Unscientific land acquisition:
Rapid urbanization serialization lands of farmers. When land is acquired the farmers are not paid adequate compensation or not provided with alternate lands. The Farmers become landless and unemployed such measures of the Govt lead to agitations.

6. Support price:
Amidst innumerable problems, farmers do not get adequate price for their produce. At that time the Government has to intervene and announce support price for the formers pro-duce. Often Govts fail to do so and farmers agitate.

Political Implications:
1. Agriculture Loans:

  • National Crop Insurance Programme (NCIP)
  • National Agricultural Insurance scheme (NAIS)
  • Weather based crop Insurance Scheme.
  • Primary Land Development Bank (PLDB)

2. National Agriculture scheme:
National Development Council (NDQ has made enormous arrangements in 2007, and national agriculture scheme was implemented with a view to enhance 4% in agricultural production. The main objective of this plan is to determine agriculture policy of all states and provide essential facilities.

3. Waiving of Debits:
When farmers were not able to get the yeild to their expectations, they cannot clear the debts. To uplift farmers from debts, the Government has taken necessary measures to waive the debts of farmers. This has reduced the suicide and death rat$ of farmers.

4. Establishment of peasant Liason centre:
To protect farmers from low quality seeds, fertilizers and protect. crops from diseases, peasant liaison centers are opened to provide necessary implements and related information, at hobli level.

5. Veterinary services:
Governament is providing veterinary services to the livestock which also supports agriculture. Through encouraging dairying and savayava krishi (organic agriculture) which are allied sectors.

6. Land Reforms Act:
National Land Reforms Act was implemented in Karnataka in 1974 when Devaraja Urs was the Chief Minister of Kamataka. Land Reforms Act of 2013 provides more compensation to landowners, rehabilitation and settlement facilities, retaining the ownership of land with farmers, no forceful acquisition of agricultural land till the final settlement. Providing the same quantum of land elsewhere in case of SCs and STs.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 6.
Explain the causes and political implications for Human Rights Movement.
Answer:
Human Rights are those rights which are inherent to the human beings and are entitled to enjoy without distinction of race, colour, religion, language, gender, birth, place, social, economic, political and other status.

Right to life, liberty, equality and dignity of all human beings are guaranteed under the constitution and embodied in the international covenents and enforceable by law court. But violations of human rights in many countries have led international organisations to take measures to protect them at global levels.
The causes of human rights violations movement are.
1. To protect civil liberty:
Though all men are bom equal and have the liberty to shape their own lives, human rights violations is widespread. The constitution of India has guaranteed these rights in the part III to its citizens. But dalits, women and children are being suppressed and exploited. To avoid such atrocities, human rights activists are struggling hard to create awareness.

2. To Remove slavery:
Slavery is constitutionally banned but is active in many parts of the country. Child labour and bonded labour are seen frequently. Hence protests have become inevitable.

3. To protect family life:
Every citizen has the right to family life. Due to modernization many youths are heading towards inter-caste and inter religious marriages; elders of family to maintain family respect and values go to the extent of ‘Maryada hatye’ of the women and youth. Dowry harassment many a times ends up in either suicide or murder.

4. To protect the right of dalits:
Injustice, attroities, social ostracism, madae snana, dalits are. forced to carry night soil of the upper castes. Such human rights violation led to protests.

5. Reject to file ceses:
Though the aggrieved persons approach the authorities to file the cases of rights violations, it is not filed due to interference ofpoliticians and dominant castes. Many times, the authorities do not respond positively and do not provide medical aid when required. Most cases are not highlighted. Human rights organisations have to lead protests and Agitations.

Political Implications:
(A) National Human Rights Commission:
The commission came into existence on January 8th, 1994, consisting of a chairman who is retired or sitting Chief Justice of India along with the members. The commission has to prepare a list of human rights and get approval by the Govt.

Whenever violation is caused, systematic inquires are to be conducted and transperancy should be maintained with the help of judiciary. The commission has to enact new laws whenever the existing laws are found inadequate to the needs of inquiry. While doing so, it has to respect the prevailing international laws, contracts and resolutions.

(B) State Human Rights Commission:
As per the Human Rights Act of India, each state is authorized to establish a state Human Rights Commission consisting of a chairman who is a retired or sitting Supreme Court Judge or Chief Justice of High Court along with members. As per the direction of the Act, the commission was set up in Karnataka in 2005 in the same model of that of National level.

(C) Child Rights:
Violation of Human Rights particularly on, Child Rights are seen everywhere. The D.C is authorized to look into the details of the exploitation of children. Measures are to be taken to register complaints through Child Helpline in matters relating to child labour, child abuse, encouraging begging and others.

(D) Creating Awareness:
Speedy disposal of the grievances, registered in the commission at the different levels prove that people are aware of the movements and its achievements.

Question 7.
Explain the causes and political implications for Environment Movement.
Answer:
The protection of our environment is the need of the hour for human beings to survive and lead a healthy life. But greedy human beings are exploiting the natural resources indiscriminately leading to environmental degradation. This unethical exploitation of natural resources and loss of biodiversity has led to environmental protection movements.
Causes:
1. To protect the environmental degradation:
The Govt of India has taken measures for economic development including industrial and technological development. This has led to industrialization, urbanization and their adverse effects like loss of cultivable land on the fertility of soil.

2. To protect Biodiversity:
Rampart deforestation for fuel and construction has left the wildlife and birds without forests cover. Hence movements like Chipco, Appico and save Western ghats movements started. ‘

3. Environmental education and consciousness:
To create awareness and consciousness among human beings NGOs have started formal education in schools and colleges. Programmes, rallies and jathas are organised to create awareness.

4. To curb environmental decocy:
The greediness of the human beings has led to excavate and exploit natural resources leading to soil erosion, drying up of rivers and reservoirs, air and water pollution, sound pollution etc. To maintain equilibrium and to pressurize the people in the Govt to take adequate measures, movements have started.

The 42nd constitutional amendment (1976) in part IV-Directive Principles of State policy as provided for environmental protection. The Govt of India has established the National Committee For Environmental Planing under , the dept, of science and technology. In 1985 , the Environment and Forest secretariat was established. Political implications for environmental movements.
1. Ganga water cleaning plan:
A prominent environmentalist shri M.C.Mehta filed an affidavit in Supreme Court with regarding to cleaning of Ganga river water. The honourable court directed the union Govt, to frame a plan. The expert Ganga water Committee recommended the following measures.

  • Establishing a processing unit to clean the drainage water near the river basin.
  • To stop throwing dead bodies into the river and suggested to construct 28 crematoriums.
  • Protection and Maintanance of Taj Mahal.

2. Krishnan Maharajan committee:
Sri S.K.Ghosh and R.C.Trivedi conducted a study on the factors responsible for pollution in and around the Tajmahal, one of the world heritage sites. It submitted its report in 1996 to the central Govt stating that suitable measures are to be taken to protect the monument of love for future generations.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

3. Legislation – The Govt of India has made legislations as follows:

  • Protection of Wild Life Act -1972
  • Water Pollution and Regulation Act of 1974
  • Protection of Forest Act of 1980
  • Regulation of Air pollution Act of 1981
  • Environmental Maintenance Act of 1986.
  • Bio-diversity Act of 2002.

States and union govts have taken measures to legislate on environment protection based on the guidelines of union govt. The Govt of Karnataka has opened Regional offices in Bangalore, Davangere, Mangalore, Raichur, Hassan, Dharwad, Belgaum, Gulbarga, Bidar and Tumkur to protect the environment effectively. Three Divisional offices have also been started in Dharwad, Mangalore and Gulbarga, Measures to punish the violators of the laws have been taken.

2nd PUC Political Science Social Movements and their Political Implications Additional Questions and Answers

I. One Mark Questions.

Question 1.
Who are Dalits?
Answer:
Dalits are the fifth and last of the game system of India.

Question 2.
Who are Backward classes?
Answer:
Backward classes are those communities who are economically, socially and educationally backward.

Question 3.
Give some examples of Backward classes?
Answer:
Kuruba, Besta, Nayinda, Madiwala etc.,

Question 4.
When was the protection of Civil rights enacted?
Answer:
In 1955.

Question 5.
When was the Prevention of Atrocities on SCs and STs enacted?
Answer:
In 1989.

Question 6.
When did Jyothiba Pule start the ‘Akshara Kranthi’?
Answer:
In 1838.

Question 7.
When was the Kaka kelekar Back-ward classes Commission appointed?
Answer:
In 1953.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 8.
Who was the pioneer of feminist movement in India?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Question 9.
When was the Widow Remarriage Act Framed?
Answer:
In 1856.

Question 10.
When was the Abolition of Dowry Act passed?
Answer:
In 1961.

Question 11.
When was the National Women Com-mission established.
Answer:
In 1992.

Question 12.
When was the abolition of Child Marriage Act passed?
Answer:
In 2006.

Question 13.
Name on Govt of Karnataka Scheme to empower women.
Answer:
Stree Shakthi Yojana.

Question 14.
Name any one Labour Organisation.
Answer:
All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC).

Question 15.
When is the International Labour Day celebrated?
Answer:
1st May.

Question 16.
Who was the leader of the peasant movement of Karnataka?
Answer:
Prof M.D. N anjundas wamy.

Question 17.
Name one crop insurance program.
Answer:
National crop Insurance Programme (NCIP).

Question 18.
When was the National Agricultural Scheme implemented?
Answer:
In 2007.

2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Social Movements and their Political Implications

Question 19.
When was the National Land Reforms Act implemented in Karnataka?
Answer:
In 1974.

Question 20.
When was the Universal Declaration of Human Rights accepted?
Answer:
In 10th December 1948.

Question 21.
When was the National Human Rights Commission established?
Answer:
On 8th January 1994.

Question 22.
When was the Karnataka state Human Rights Commission established?
Answer:
In 2005.

Question 23.
When was the Bio-Diversity Act enacted?
Answer:
In 2002.

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