2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

2nd PUC Sociology Economic, Political and Communication Systems Text Book Questions and Answers

I. One Mark Questions.

Question 1.
Who is the author of the book ‘Wealth of Nations’.
Answer:
Adam Smith.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 2.
What is the other name of Laissez-Faire Policy?
Answer:
Free-market.

Question 3.
What does WWW stands for.
Answer:
World Wide Web.

Question 4.
Who created World Wide Web?
Answer:
Tim Berners -Lee.

Question 5.
In which year Karachi Resolution Made?
Answer:
1931.

Question 6.
Mention any two core values of Indian Democracy.
Answer:

  • Equality, Liberty and Fraternity
  • Karachi Resolution – 1931.

Question 7.
Expand TRP?
Answer:
Television Rating Point.

Question 8.
Name two traditional business communities in India.
Answer:
Vaisya and Parsis.

Question 9.
What is Democracy?
Answer:
Democracy is a Government of the people, by the people and for the people.

Question 10.
Who wrote Asian Drama?
Answer:
Gunnar Myrdal.

II. Two Marsh Questions.

Question 11.
What do you mean by Market?
Answer:
A market is a social institution, where by parties engage in exchange of goods and services. Markets rely on sellers offering their goods and services in exchange for money from buyers.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 12.
Mention any two features of Market.
Answer:

  1. Market is a place where things are brought and sold.
  2. Market is not just a physical place, but the gathering of people – buyers and sellers.

Question 13.
What is Virtual Market.
Answer:
The new form of marketing and transaction taking place ‘on-line’ through information and communications technology.

Question 14.
Name any two Online Shopping Sites.
Answer:
Amazon.com and Futurebazzar.

Question 15.
What is Social Networking Sites (SNS)?
Answer:
Social Networking sites are defined as online platforms that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities.

Question 16.
What is McDonaldization?
Answer:
McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world. – George Ritzer.

Question 17.
Mention two guiding principles used by George Ritzer for McDonaldization.
Answer:

  • Efficiency
  • Calculability.

Question 18.
What is Internet?
Answer:
Internet is a global system of inter-connected computer networks which were linked with networking technology. Internet is a network of networks.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 19.
Define Political institutions.
Answer:
A Political Institution is an organization, constituted to exercise power which is vested through certain methods, to rule over a group of people living in a particular geographical area.

Question 20.
What is Mass Media?
Answer:
Mass Media are the means of communication that reach large number of people in a short time. Eg: Newspaper, TV, Radio, Social Networking sites.

III. Five Marks Questions.

Question 21.
Name any five Kannada News Channels.
Answer:

  • T.V 9
  • Suvarna News
  • Kasturi 24 x 7
  • Samaya News
  • Udaya News.

Question 22.
Describe Weekly Market as a Social Institution.
Answer:
Weekly Market as a Social Institution:
Periodic Markets are a central feature of social and, economic organisation of agrarian or ‘peasant’ societies. Weekly Markets bring together people from surrounding villages, who come to sell their agricultural or other products and to buy manufactured goods and items not available in their villages.

They attract traders, buyers, money lenders, entertainers, astrologers, and a host of other specialists offering their services. In rural India there are also specialized markets which that take place at less frequent intervals, for instance ‘cattle markets’. These periodic markets link different regional and local economies together and link them to wider national economy and to towns and metros.

Weekly market is a common sight in rural and urban India. The weekly markets is the major institution for exchange of goods in hilly, and forested areas. It is also a place for social intercourse. Local people come to the market to sell their goods (agricultural or forest produce) to traders. Traders sell them in towns and buy essentials such as salt and agricultural implements and consumer goods like bangles and jewellery.

Many visitors come to the market to meet ki, to arrange marriages, and to exchange gossip. Weekly markets in Tribal areas has changed over time. When these remote areas were brought under the colonial rule, they were gradually incorporated into wider regional and national economies. Tribal areas were connected by roads, so that the rich forest and mineral resources could be exploited.

This led to the influx of traders, money lenders and other non-tribals into these areas. The local tribal economy was transformed as forest produce was sold to outsiders and money and new kinds of goods enured the system. Local tribal economies began to be linked to wider markets, usually with very negative consequences for local people. The entry of traders and money lenders from outside the local area led them to lose land to outsiders.

Question 23.
Write a note on Bastar Tribal Market.
Answer:
Bastar Tribal Market – Chattisgarh:
The anthropologist Alfred Cell studied ’Dhorai’ tribal market in 1982. According to him the market has a significance much beyond its economic functions. The layout of the market symbolises the hierarchical inter¬group social relations in this region. Different social groups are located according to their position in caste and social hierarchy as well as in the market system.

  1. The wealthy and high-ranking Rajput Jeweller and the middle ranking local traders sit in the ‘central zones’.
  2. The tribal sellers of vegetables and local wares in the outer circles.

The quality of social relations is expressed in the kinds of goods that are bought and sold, and the way in which transactions are carried out. Interaction between tribal and nop- tribal traders are very different than those between Hindus of the same community. They express hierarchy and social distance rather than social equality.

The Adivasi village market in Bastar Dhorai is the name of a market village located in the hinter land of Bastar district, Chattisgarh. Every Friday Dhorai transforms from a sleepy forest village to a totally different place. Parked trucks Jam the village roads. Forest guards in immaculate uniforms and forest service officials supervise the operations from the forest rest house.

They disburse payments to tribal labourers. Vegetable traders, craftsmen, potters, weavers and blacksmiths sell their goods. The market place is a roughly quadrangular patch of ground, about 100 square yards, at the centre there grows a magnificent banyan tree. The thatched market stalls are arranged in a concentric pattern, and are divided by narrow-streets or defiles.

The customers manoeuvre themselves as best they can in the crush, trying to avoid treading on the goods of less established traders, who make use of every nook and corner between the permanent stalls to display their wares.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 24.
Describe the emergence of New Market during the Colonial Period.
Answer:
The emergence of New Markets in Colonial Period:
The advent of colonialism in India produced major upheavals in the economy, causing disruptions in production, trade and agriculture. A well-known example is the demise of handloom industry due to the flooding of the market with cheaply manufactured textiles from England. Although precolonial India already had a complex monetised economy, the colonial period is a turning point.

In the colonial era India began to be fully linked to the world capitalist economy. Even before being colonized was a supplier of manufactured goods to the world. But after colonization, India became a source of raw-materials and agricultural products and a consumer of manufactured goods, both bargely for the benefit of industrialising England.

At the sometime, a new groups entered into the trade business, sometimes in alliance with existing merchant communities and in some cases by forcing them out of business. But rather than completely overturning existing economic institutions, the expansion of the market economy in India provided new opportunities to some merchant communities, which were able to improve their position by re-orienting themselves to changing economic circumstances.

In some cases, new communities emerged to take advantage of the economic opportunities, provided by colonialism and continued to hold economic power even after Independence.

Question 25.
Write a note on Pushkar Annual Fair.
Answer:
The Pushkar Annual Fair:
The Pushkar is an annual fair day camel and livestock fair, at Pushkar – Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs and apart from buying and selling of livestock it has become an important tourist attraction. In recent years the fair has also included an exhibition cricket match between local Pushkar Club and a team of random foreign tourists.

Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar lake where the fair is held. Men buy and sell their livestock, which include camels, cows, sheep, goats. The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs and exhibitions to follows.

It is celebrated for five days from Karthik Ekadashi to Karthik Poornima, the full moon day (the 15th) of Karthfk (Oct-Nov) in the Hindu Calendar. The full moon day is the main day and on this day Hindus believe that Lord Brahma sprung up the Pushkar Lake. Numerous people bathe in its sacred waters.

Question 26.
Write a note on Grassroots Politics.
Answer:
Grass Roots Politics:
The roots of scientific study of local-level politics in India lie in the village studies undertaken by the first generation of post-independence social scientists. Their interest in these communities grew out of projects initiated from the 1950’s both by the Government of India and external agencies such as the FORD and Rockefeller foundations.

These projects were undertaken as aspects of planning process that had become a central preoccupation of newly independent India. The purpose, of course was to promote and evaluate the country’s social and economic progress, One of the earliest study undertaken by a research team headed by professor Oscar Lewis, a consulting Anthropologist for the Ford Foundation published the Programme Evaluation Organisation of the Planning Commission, under the title ’Group Dynamics in North Indian Village – A study of Factions’.

This research systematically identified several political factions among whom power was sub-divided and between whom power was compelled for. F.G.Bailey’s research, initially in the Orissa village of Bisipara, showed how a new economy and political order were creating opportunities for downtrodden castes to dramatically alter their relationships to the system of power.

The reason is the penetration of ’world-commerce’ and ’the administrative frontier’ into the village community, brought about a radical change because land not only ceased to be the sole form of wealth but itself became, commoditized.

Just another goods to be bought by persons who have a source of Income other than cultivation alone’ and rendered valuable ’even the largest estate in the village’ because land could be acquired by anyone with enough money.

A most striking manifestation of the consequences of this loosening-up process was the impact on the Distillers in Bisipara who were able to profit from the liquor trade and then employ their newly acquired monetary wealth to force changes in their hierarchical status and correspondingly ’to a heightening of their political aspirations’. This ’class transformation’ of caste was prototypical of what the new political economy was giving rise to through grassroots India.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 27.
Write a note on Social Networking Sites?
Answer:
Social Networking sites are defined as on-line platforms that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities. Further, SNS are a type of virtual community that has grown tremendously in popularity.

Through social networking, people can use a network of online friends and group memberships to keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends, and create real life friendship through similar interest or groups. Besides, establishing social relationships, social networking members can share interest and their ideas with other like-minded members by joining groups or forums.

They can also participate in discussions. Members will be updated instantly about their friends and groups. In short, an SNS is a hub of communication, entertainment and information. The social networking sites include Facebook, Orkut, Google plus, My space, Twitter, Friendster, Bharath student etc.,

In 2013, there were 127.5 million people who were using SNS frequently in India. Currently, the usage of SNS is continuously growing in prominence in India. Today India ranks on the third largest market for the usage of SNS worldwide, after the US and China. Certain modifications were being made to increase the popularity of SNS in India particularly by providing the service in few regional languages.

Question 28.
Mention any five contemporary Indian Newspapers in English.
Answer:

  1. The Times of India, Bombay, 1851.
  2. The Statesman, Calcutta, 1875.
  3. The Hindu, 1878.
  4. The Indian Express.
  5. Deccan Herald.

Question 29.
Write a note on Radio.
Answer:
Radio:
Radio broadcasting which commenced in India through amateur ‘HAM’ Broadcasting clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in the 1920’s, matured into a public broad-coasting system in the 1940’s during the world war II when it became a major instrument of propaganda for Allied forces in South-East Asia.

At the time of Independence, there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience. Since the media was seen as an active partner in the development of the newly free nation and AIR’s programmes consisted mainly of news, current affairs and discussions on development.

Apart from ALL India Radio (AIR) there was ‘Vividh-Bharathi’, a channel for entertainment that was primarily broadcasting film songs on listener’s request. In 1957 AIR became popular channel. Vividh Bharathi, which soon began to carry sponsored programmes and advertisements and, grew to become a money-spinning channel for AIR.

‘Aakashvani’ (Kannada version of AIR) headquarters at Bangalore and there are regional centers at Mysore, Bhadravathi, Dharwad, Mangalore and Gulbarga, broad-casting news, entertainment, sponsored programmes and commercial programmes etc., It is a very popular radio broadcasting corporation.

‘Krishiranga’ by G.R.Gundanna and M.T.Jayanna was one of the popular programme of Aakashavani. After Independence, the Indian Government gave priority to the expansion of the radio broadcasting infrastructure, especially in state capitals and in border areas. Over the years, AIR has developed a formidable infrastructure for radio broadcasting in India.

It operates a three third-national, regional and local-service to cater to India’s geographic, Linguistic and cultural diversity. Nowadays radio broadcasts in 24 languages and 14 dialects.

FM Radio (Frequency Modulator Radio):
The advert of privately owned FM radio stations in 2002 provided a boost to entertainment programmes over radio. In order to attract audiences, these radio stations provide entertainment. They specialise in ’particular kinds’ of popular music to retain their audiences. Most of FM channels which are popular among urbans and students often belong to media conglomerates.

Like ’Radio Mirchi’ belongs to Times of India group, Red FM is owned by living media and Radio City by Star Network. Further privatisation of radio stations and the emergence of community owned radio stations would lead to the growth of radi stations. The demand for local news is growing. The number of homes listening to FM in India has also reinforced the world wide trend of networks getting replaced by local radio.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 30.
Write any five leading Kannada Newspapers?
Answer:

  1. Prajavani
  2. Kannada Prabha
  3. Udayavani
  4. E.Sanju
  5. Vijaya Karnataka

IV. Ten Marks Questions.

Question 31.
Explain the types of Mass Media.
Answer:
Mass Media:
Mass Media is divided into two major types which are;

  1. Print Media: Newspaper and Magazines
  2. Electronic Media: Radio, Television, Internet and Social networking sites.

1. Print Media:
The development of printing press by Johann Gutenberg in 1440 also developed the first modern mass media. Printing in certain societies dates back to many centuries. The first attempts at printing books using modern technology began in Europe. In the beginning, only religious books were printed. With the Industrial Revolution, the print media also grew.

Paul Julius Reuter initiated prototype new service in Paris in 1849, using carrier pigeons as well as the electric telegraph in his network. By 1923, the company he founded ’Reuters’ was transmitting news by Radio.

(a) Early Newspapers in India:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy, published the Bengali ’Sambad-Kaumudi’ in 1821 and ’Mirat-ul-Akbar’ in Persian published in 1822, were the first publications in India with a distinct nationalist and democratic approach. The pioneer of Gujarati press in Bombay, Fardoonji Murzban started the daily ‘Bombay Samachar’ in 1822. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar started the Bengali ‘Shome Prakash’ in 1858.

  • The Times of India, Bombay, 1851
  • The Pioneer, Allahabad, 1865
  • The Madras Mail, 1868
  • The Statesman, Calcutta, 1875
  • The civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, 1876
  • The Hindu, 1878
  • The Indian Express
  • The Hindusthan
  • Times Deccan Herald.

(b) Kannada Newspapers:
The first kannada newspaper in Karnataka was published by Hermann Mogling, a missionary from Basil Mission, in 1843, the ‘Mangalooru Samachara’ from Mangalore. It was later renamed as Kannada Samachar. Later a few newspaper cum magazines were published in different parts of the state.

  • Sabuddhi Prakasha Vara Patrike (1849)
  • Arunodaya (1862)
  • Mysore Herald (1886)
  • Wealth of Mysore (1912)
  • Bharathi (1907 by D.V.Gundappa)
  • Chitragupta (1928, K.N.Veeranna Gowda, Mandya).

Prajamatha (1931, B.N.Gupta) Other Kannada language newspapers include Prajavani, Kannada Prabha, Samyukta Karnataka, Vijaya Karnataka, Hosa Digantha, Sanjeevani, Udayavani, Andolan, E.Sange etc., The print media carried a range of opinions which expressed their idea of ‘free’ India.

2. Electronic Media:
(A) Radio:
Radio broadcasting which commenced in India through amateur ’HAM’ Broadcasting clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in the 1920’s, matured into a public broadcasting system in the 1940s during the world war II when it became a major instrument of propaganda for Allied forces in South¬East Asia.

At the time of Independence, there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience. Since the media was seen as an active partner in the development of the newly free nation and AIR’s programmes consisted mainly of news, current affairs and discussions on development.

Apart from ALL India Radio (AIR) there was ’Vividh-Bharathi’, a channel for entertainment that was primarily broadcasting film songs on listener’s request. In 1957 AIR became popular channel. Vividh Bharathi, which soon began to carry sponsored programmes and advertisements and grew to become a money-spinning channel for AIR.

‘Aakashvani’ (Kannada version of AIR) headquarters at Bangalore and there are regional centers at Mysore, Bhadravathi, Dharwad, Mangalore and Gulbarga, broad-casting news, entertainment, sponsored programmes and commercial programmes etc., It is a very popular radio broadcasting corporation.

‘Krishiranga’ by G.R.Gundanna and M.T.Jayanna was one of the popular programmes of Aakashavani. After Independence, the Indian Government gave priority to the expansion of the radio broad-casting infrastructure, especially in state capitals and in border areas.

Over the years, AIR has developed a formidable infrastructure for radio broadcasting in India. It operates a three third- national, regional and local-service to cater to India’s geographic, Linguistic and cultural diversity. Nowadays radio broadcasts in 24 languages and 14 dialects.

FM Radio (Frequency Modulator Radio):
The advert of privately owned FM radio stations in 2002 provided a boost to entertainment programmes over radio. In order to attract audiences, these radio stations provide entertainment. They specialise in ’particular kinds’ of popular music to retain their audiences.

Most of FM channels which are popular among urbans and students often belong to media conglomerates. Like ‘Radio Mirchi’ belongs to Times of India group, Red FM is owned by living media and R&dio City by Star Network. Further privatisation of radio stations and the emergence of community-owned radio stations would lead to the growth of radio stations.

The demand for local news is growing. The number of homes listening to FM in India has also reinforced the world wide trend of networks getting replaced by local radio.

(B) Television (TV):
Television programming was introduced experimentally in India to promote rural development as early as 1959. “Krushi Darshan” was the first programme telecast on “Doordarshan”. Later the Satellite Institutional Television Experiment (SITE) broad cast directly to community viewers in the rural areas of six states between August 1975 and July 1976.

These instructional broadcasts to 2,400 TV sets directly for 4 hours daily. Television stations were set up under ’Doordarshan’ in 4 cities Delhi, Mumbai, Srinagar and Amritsar by 1975. Three more stations where added in Kolkata, Chennai, calander during the same year.

Every broadcasting centre had its own mix of programmes comprising news, children’s and women oriented programmes, farmer’s programmes as well as entertainment. Later programmes were allowed to carry advertisements of its sponsors, a shift in target audience was evident. Entertainment programmes grew and were directed to mass audience.

The advent of colour broadcasting during the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi and the rapid expansion of the national network led to rapid commercialisation of TV Broadcasting. During 1984-85, the number of TV transmitters increased all over India covering a large proportion of the population.

Soap operas like Hum Log and Buniyaad and epics Ramayana and Mahabharat were telecast. In the last two decades, private channels have started broadcasting and increasing in numbers.
“Everyday life is experienced differently in a society in which the television plays an important role” – Anthony Giddens.

News Channels in Kannada:
The Government of India broadcaster Doordarshan has dedicated DD Chandana for the Kannada Language, which also provides Kannada news. Udaya news was the first private news channel in Kannada, later TV-9, Suvarna News, Kasturi 24×7, E TV News came up. Television Rating Point (TRP) – is a tool provided to judge programme viewership.

It is a people’s meter. The TRP device is attached to the TV sets of thousand viewers’ houses to judge viewership. Political news, sports, crime news etc., get good TRP.

(C) internet:
Internet is a global system of inter-connected computer networks consisting of millions of private, public, academic, business networks, which were linked with networking technology. Internet is a network of networks. Internet originated in 1960’s by the US Defence Department Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) ARPANET, the network set up by US Defence Department, became the foundation of the global, horizontal communication networks.

sites include, Facebook, Orkut, The contemporary period is called Information Age. Communication age or Networking Age. The internet offers wide variety of communication tools.

Billions of people use facilities like search engines, web pages, e-mails, e-book, e-journals and e-newspapers, internet banking, internet telephony, video conferencing, multi-media sharing, online newsrooms, gaming, shopping, blogging and importantly, social networking. Today internet is an essential communication medium in professional and personal life.

4. Social Networking Sites (SNS):
Social Networking sites are defined as online platforms that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities. Further, SNS are a type of virtual community that has grown tremendously in popularity.

Through social networking people can use network of on line friends and group memberships to keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends, and create real life friendship through similar interest or groups. Besides, establishing social relationships, social networking members can share interest and their ideas with other like-minded members by joining groups or forums.

They can also participate in discussions. Members will be updated instantly about their friends and groups. In short, a SNS is a hub of communication, entertainment and information. The social networking sites include, Facebook, Orkut, Google plus, My space, Twitter, Friendster, Bharath student etc.,

In 2013, there were 127.5 million people who were using SNS frequently in India. Currently the usage of SNS is continuously growing in prominence in India. Today India ranks on the third largest market for the usage of SNS worldwide, after the US and China. Certain modifications were being made to increase the popularity of SNS in India particularly by providing the service in few regional languages.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 32.
Describe Virtual Markets in detail.
Answer:
The emergence of online or virtual market is relatively a new phenomenon and its is only a few- decade old. The events that took place before 1990’s led to the development of virtual market. The research for developing virtual market started in early 1960 and became a reality in 1990’s.

The concept of ‘Teleshopping’ was first introduced by Michael Aldrich in 1979 and in the same year ‘videotex’ was being Researched. In France, Mintel succeeded in the research of videotex which allowed on-line purchases, check share market etc in 1982.

The actual growth of on-line or virtual market started in 1990, when the first ‘world wide web’ (WWW) server and browser, created by Tim Burners-Life; in 1990, opened for commercial use in 1991. Thereafter,, with the advancement of IT, in 1994 an on-line’ Pizza Shop’ ha? been opened by Pizza Hut.

Later, Internet shop’s first online shopping system and Netscape’ SSL systems have been developed with the advent of those above, in 1995 Amazon.com has launched its virtual marketing sites and later in the same year C Bay also opened up it’s on-line shopping web sites, which is the first on-line auction website.

The growth of virtual marketing in India is not unilinear because of constraints passed by the culturally and linguistically diverse India. The ‘Global village’ phenomenon and the advancement of information technology which led the Indians to make the best of the ‘Internet ’, particularly shopping through on-line.

The major online shopping sites are e-bay.in, myntra.com, Homeshop18, snapdeal.com, Amazon.com etc., The total number on-line shoppers in India in 2011 was 60 million. Shopping companies like Futruebazaar, Shoppers-stop, Reliance Retail, Spencer Mart have emerged.

Question 33.
Explain the Social Organisation of Traditional Business Communities.
Answer:
Traditional Business Communities:
‘Vaisyas’ constitute one of the four varnas an indication of the importance of the merchant and of trade or business societies. The ‘Banias’ of North India are also business communities.
1. The emergence of Traditional Business Communities:
The traditional business communities in India not only include ‘Vaisyas’ but also other groups with distinctive religious or other community identities such as Parsis, Sindhis, Bohras or Jains. The Banjaras controlled long distance trade in salt during the colonial period.

2. Operations of Market:
Specific areas of business are controlled by particular communities. One of the reasons for caste-based specialisation is that trade and commerce oft~n operate through caste and kinship network, as in the case of Nakarattars of Tamil Nadu. Businessmen trust their own community or kin group so they tend to do business within such network rather than outsiders. This created caste monopoly in certain areas of business.

3. Emergency of New-Markets Colonial Period:
The advent of colonialism in India produced major upheavals in the economy, causing disruptions in production, trade and agriculture. A well-known example is the demise of the handloom industry due to the flooding of the market with cheap manufactured textiles from England.

Although precolonial India already had a complex monetised economy, the colonial period is a turning point. In the colonial era India began to be fully linked to the world capitalist economy. Even before being colonized was a supplier of manufactured goods to the world.

But after colonization, India became a source of raw materials and agricultural products and a consumer of manufactured goods, both barely for the benefit of industrialising England. At the same time, a new group entered into the trade business, sometimes in alliance with existing merchant communities and in some cases by forcing them out of business.

But rather than completely overturning existing economic institutions, the expansion of the market economy in India provided new opportunities to some merchant communities, which were able to improve their position by re-orienting themselves to changing economic circumstances.

In some cases, new communities emerged to take advantage of the economic opportunities, provided by colonialism and continued to hold economic power even after Independence.

4. The emergence of Marwaris:
‘Marwaris’ are probably the most wide spread and best known business community in India. Represented by leading industrial families such as the Birlas, Ambanis, Lakshmi Mittal etc. The community also includes shopkeepers and small traders in the bazaars of towns throughout the country.

The Marwari families accumulated enough wealth to become moneylenders and by acting as bankers also helped the commercial expansion of the British in India. Post Independence period some marwari families transformed themselves into modern industrialists. They control most industries in India.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 34.
Give a brief note on Media in Contemporary World.
Answer:
Media in the Contemporary World:
In 21st Century, communication technology is such that information can be shared instantaneously by millions of people anywhere in the world. The transfer of information through speech or mass media is crucial in modern society.
‘Society is influenced much more by the type of the media than by the content, or the messages, which the media convey’. – Marshall McLuhan.

Marshall McLuhan is of the opinion that the electronic media has created a ‘Global Village’. We are interconnected with the world in which people experience the same events from many different places. 24×7 news channels report occurrences and live-cover the unfolding events for the rest of the world.

Internet is the heart of this communication revolution. Expansion of technologies such as voice recognition, broadband transmission, web-casting and cable-links, the internet has become the conduit for delivery of information, advertising and commerce to media audiences.

Neil Postman in his book, Amusing to media audiences, public discourse in the age of show business, says Television presents serious issues as entertainment because the form excludes the content. Robert Putnam is referring to Media as a ‘social capital’ to useful social networks.

Horkheimer and Adorno made an exclusive study of what they called the ‘culture industry’ meaning the entertainment industries of film, TV, popular music, radio, newspaper and magazines. They argued that the production of culture had become just as standardised and dominated by the desire for profit as their industries Art disappears, Swamped by commercialization and culture is replaced by entertainment.

Jurgen Habermas has analysed the media as decay of the ‘Public Sphere’. The public sphere is an arena of public debate in which issues of general concern can be discussed and opinions formed. The spread of mass media and mass entertainment causes the public sphere to become largely a sham.

‘Public opinion’ is not formed through open, rational discussion but ‘through manipulation and control’ for example in advertising. Jean Baudrillard regards impact of modern mass media as ‘Hyper Reality’. It has transformed the very nature of our lives. TV does not just ‘represent’ the world to us, it increasingly defines, what the world in which we live actually is.

Question 35.
Explain the impact of Globalisation on Print Media and Electronic Media.
Answer:
Impact of Globalization on Print Media:
1. Globalization and Regional Print Media:
The reasons of the amazing growth in Indian Language newspapers are due to rise in literacy rate and rural-urban migration. There is a manifold increase in print-media readership. Indian language newspapers such as ‘Malayala Manorama’ and ‘E-nadt launched the concept of local news by introducing district and block editions.

Regional Newspapers like Prajavani,’Vijaya Karnataka etc., have always used simplified and colloquial language. These newspapers have also adopted advanced technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts and literacy and niche booklets. Cross-media ownership trend becoming visible among the major player, such as E-nadu group, Time group, Dainik Jagaran, and Sahara who plunged into TV news after long innings in newspaper.

2. Globalization and English Newspapers:
While English newspapers, often called ‘National Dailies’ i.e, The Times of India, The Indian Express, The Economic Times, Hindustan Times, Deccan Herald and etc., Circulate across regions vernacular newspapers have also increased their circulation.

To complete with the electronic media, newspaper have reduced prices and brought out editions from multiple centres. It was feared that electronic media would lead to the decline of print media, but rather it has expanded with innovative ideas.

3. Globalization and Television:
In 1991 there was one state controlled TV Channel Doordarshan in India. By 1998 there were 90 Channels Private Satellite Channels have multiplied rapidly since the Mid- 1990’s. While DD broadcasts over 20 channels. The staggering growth of satellite channels has been one of the defining development of contemporary India.

The Gulf War of 1991 (which popularised CNN) and the launching of Star-TV in the same year by the Whoampoa Hutchinson Group of Hongkong, signalled the arrival of private satellite channels in India. In 1992, Zee TV, a Hindi-based satellite entertainment channel, also began beaming programs to cable network television viewers of India.

By 2000, many private cable and satellite channels were available including regional language broadcasting like Sun-TV, EenaduTV, Udaya-TV, Raj-TV and Asianet. Indian based English news channels like ND TV 24×7, CNN I BN, Times Now, Headlines Today are popular.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

The arrival of Transnational TV companies like Star TV, M TV, Channel (V), Sony, worried some people on the likely impact on Indian youth and on Indian cultural identity. The transnational channel, through research, realised that the use of familiarly is more effective in procuring the diverse groups that constitute the Indian audience. Hence they have launched specific regional channels.

Most of the news channels are on 24×7. News is lively and informal. It was fostered public debate and is expanding its reach every year. Serious political and economic issues are being neglected. Most channels beam reality shows, talk shows, movies, soap operas, interactive shows, game shows and comedy shows

2nd PUC Sociology Economic, Political and Communication Systems Additional Questions and Answers

I. One Mark Questions.

Question 1.
Who studied the Bastar Tribal Market?
Answer:
Alfred Gell (1982).

Question 2.
Name one traditional business community.
Answer:
Vaisyas.

Question 3.
When is the Pushkar Annual Fair held?
Answer:
On the full-moon day of Karthik (Oct-Nov) the Hindu calendar.

Question 4.
Who pioneered prototype news service and when?
Answer:
Paul Julius Reuter in Paris in 1849.

Question 5.
When did FM Radio stations starts in India.
Answer:
2002.

Question 6.
Which device measures TRPs.
Answer:
People’s Meter.

2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Economic, Political and Communication Systems

Question 7.
Name one contemporary Media Tycoon.
Answer:
Ruper Murdoch of Australia.

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