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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 8 Social Science History Important Questions Chapter 11 The Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta & The Chalukya’s of Kalyana
Who was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty?
Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Name the important rulers of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Dantidurga, Krishna I, Govinda II, Dhruva, Govinda III and Amoghavarsha were the important rulers of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Describe the achievements of Amoghavarsha.
Amoghavarsha had to face many Obstacles during the early years of his reign. He was not a military genius, was not interested in feuds and desired peace. He secured the friendship of the Gangas and the Pallavas by entering into marriage alliances with them. He also lost some of the territories in the north.
His period saw great prosperity because of the flourishing trade through the ports of the west coast with Persia and Arabia. During his period an Arab traveller Suleiman visited his court. He has praised Amoghavarsha as one of the four powerful rulers of the world. ‘Kavirajamarga’ was written during his period.
How did the Rashtrakuta rule come to an end?
After ruling for more than two centuries, the Rashtrakuta power began to weaken. During the reign of Karka II the weakness of the kingdom made one of his feudatories Tailapa II of Kalyana Chalukyas to seize power and end the rule of the Rashtrakutas.
Write about the administrative system of the Rashtrakutas.
Kingship among the Rashtrakutas was hereditary. There used to be a council of ministers to assist the king. There was a minister called Mahasandhivigrahi in the council of ministers to look after foreign affairs. The kingdom was divided into Rashtra, Vishaya, Nadu and Grama for administrative convenience.
The leader of the Grama was Gramapati or Prabhugavunda. He was the leader of the village army too. He was assisted by the village accountant. There were Grama sabhas also. The Nadagavunda was in charge of the Nadus. Similar officials were there in Vishayas and Rashtras. They were called Vishayapati and Rashtrapati.
Write about the educational system under the Rashtrakutas.
Agraharas and Mathas were the prominent educational centres during the time of the Rashtrakutas. Knowledge was imparted about Sanskrit, the Vedas, astrology, logic and puranas. Salotgi in Indi Taluk of Vijayapura district was one of the leading centres of learning.
Describe the contributions of the Rashtrakutas to literature.
The Rashtrakuta rulers encouraged both Kannada and Sanskrit. Excellent works were written in Sanskrit during the period. Trivikrama wrote ‘Nalachampu’ and Halayudha wrote ‘Kavirahasya’. Srivijaya, who was in die court erf Amoghavarsha, wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’. Pampa wrote ‘Adipcirana’ and ‘Vikramarjunavijaya’ in Kannada Forma composed ‘Shantipurana’.
Write a note on the Ellon temple.
The Kailasanatha temple at Ellora is a rock-cut temple. It was built by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I. This temple has been carved from a rock 100 feet high, 276 feet long and 154 feet wide.
Write a note on the cave temples of Elephanta.
The cave temples at Elepftanta near Mumbai were built by the Rashtrakutas. The sculptures here are a milestone in Rashtrakuta sculpture. The statues of Ardhanarishwara and Maheshamurtbi have been exquisitely carved.
Chalukyas Of Kalyana
Who was the founder of the Chalukyas of Kalyana?
Tailapa II was the founder of the Chalukyas of Kalyana.
Who built the new city of Kalyana?
Chalukya ruler Someshwara I built the new city of Kalyana and made it his capital.
Describe the achievements of Vikramaditya VI.
Vikramaditya VI, son of Someshwara I, is the greatest ruler of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. He was an extremely courageous warrior and an excellent administrator. He began the ‘Chalukya Vikrama Era’ in 1076 C.E. He suppressed the revolt of the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana. He established contact with the Srilankan king Vijayabahu.
How did the rule of the Kalyana Chalukyas come to an end?
The kingdom of the Kalyana Chalukyas began to decline after Vikramaditya VI and Someshwara II. It became very weak during the reign of Someshwara IV and Kalachuri Bijjala conquered Kalyana and put an end to the dynasty of Chalukyas of Kalyana.
Describe the achievements of Basaveshwara.
During the rule of Kalachuri Bijjala at Kalyana, Sri Basaveshwara came to the limelight as a social revolutionary. He devoted his life to spreading the values of the Veerashaiva sect to the common people. Basaveshwara preached in three forms – soft advice, harsh criticism and strict warning.
He taught that surrendering oneself to Shiva with total devotion was the only path to salvation. He declared that work is worship. He established the Anubhava Mantapa in 1162 C.E. He wrote his Vachanas in simple Kannada that resembled the spoken language of the common people.
Which was the new form ofliterature that came into being during the period of Chalukyas of Kalyana?
The ‘Vachana’ form of literature came into being during the period of the Kalyana Chalukyas.
How did the Chalukyas of Kalyana encourage literature?
The Chalukyas of Kalyana encouraged literature. Kannada literature prospered with the support of Jaina scholars. The notable works of this period are ‘Gadayuddha’ (Sahasa Bheema Vijayam] written by Ranna, ‘Panchatantra’ by Durgasjmha, ‘Vikramankadevacharita’ by Bilhana, ‘Dharmamruta’ by Nayasena, the legal work, ‘Mitakshara’ by Vijnaneshwara and the work on music and dance ‘Sangeeta Chudamani’ by jagadekamalla II.
King Someshwara III wrote ‘Manasollasa’ which is considered a Sanskrit encyclopedia. The Vachana form of literature emerged in Kannada during the period.
Name the vachanakaras of the period of Kalyana Chalukyas.
Basaveshwara, Akkamahadevi, Allamaprabhu, and Machayya were the leading vachanakaras of the period.
Name the important temples built during Kalyana Chalukya period.
The Kashi Vishweshwara temple at Lakkundi, Mahadeva temple at Itagi, Mallikarjuna temple at Kuruvatti, Trikuteshwara temple at Gadag were the famous temples built during the period of the Chalukyas of Kalyana.
Multiple Choice Questions
The founder of the Rashtrakuta empire was
(A) Krishna I
The Arab traveller who praised Amoghavarsha as one of the four most powerful kings in the world was
(B) Ibn Batuta
(C) Abdul Razzak
The Kannada book ‘Kavirajamarga’ was written by
The Kailasanatha temple at Ellora was built by
(A) Rashtrakuta king Krishna I
(B) Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI
(C) Pallava king Narasimhavarma
(D) Pulikeshi II of Badami Chalukyas
(A) Rashtrakuta king Krishna I
The capital of the Rashtrakutas was
The founder of the kingdom of the Chalukyas of Kalyana was
(B) Someshwara I
(C) Vikramaditya VI
(D) Tailapa II
(D) Tailapa II
Chalukya king Someshwara I built a new city called __________ and made it his capital
‘Kayakave Kailasa’ (work is worship) was the message of
Someshwara III wrote the book __________ which is considered as an Encyclopedia of Sanskrit.
Fill In The Blanks
- The founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty was Dantidurga
- The Kalyana Chalukya ruler who was responsible for the defeat of the Rashtrakutas was Tailapa II
- The author of ‘Kavirahasya’ is Halayudha
- Ponna’s well-known literary work is Shantipurana
- The most famous king of Kalyana Chalukyas was Vikramaditya VI
- The person who can be called ‘the pioneer of the social revolution’ is Basaveshwara
- The first book to be written in Kannada was Kavirajamarga
- An honour bestowed on great achievers in memory of Adikavi Pampa is Nadoja
- The poet who is called the Adikavi is Pampa
- The cave temples at Elephanta near Mumbai belong to the Rashtrakuta period.
- The Era that started in 1076 C.E. is Chalukya Vikrama Era
- The author of ‘Gadayuddha’ is Ranna
Match The Following
|a. Gadayuddha||1. Vijnaneshwara|
|b. Panchatantra||2. Bilhana|
|c. Vikramankadevacharita||3. Ranna|
|d. Mitakshara||4. Ponna|
|e. Manasollasa||5. Durgasimha|
a – 3, b – 5, c – 2, d — 1, e – 6.
|a. Suleiman||1. Legal expert|
|b. Dantidurga||2. Foreign traveler|
|c. Srivijaya||3. Founder of Rashtrakuta Kingdom|
|d. Tailapa II||4. Kavirajamarga|
|e Vijnaneshwara||5. Founder of Kalyana Chalukya kingdom|
|6. Built the city of Kalyana|
a – 2, b – 3, c – 4, d – 5, e – 1.