Students can download Class 8 History Chapter 4 Ancient Civilization of the World Important Questions, KSEEB Class 8 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and to clear all their doubts, score well in final exams.
Karnataka State Syllabus Class 8 Social Science History Important Questions Chapter 4 Ancient Civilization of the World
In which river valley did the Egyptian Civilization originate?
The Egyptian Civilization originated in the Nile Valley.
What were the contributions of the Egyptian Civilization?
Egyptians were expert farmers. They had good knowledge of irrigation. They built temples and pyramids. They invented the calendar to measure time. They also developed the art of writing. It was a symbolic language and was called hieroglyphics (sacred writings).
Write a note on Egyptian writing.
The Egyptians had mastered the art of writing. It was a symbolic language. The script consisted of small drawings. It was called hieroglyphics or sacred writing.
Why did the Egyptians develop a complex irrigation system?
Every year, during the rainy season, the Nile river would transform the Nile Valley into a fertile land. But not all agricultural areas were in the river valley. Therefore, Egyptians found it necessary to develop a complex system of irrigation comprising of wells and canals.
What was the role of the priestly class in the Egyptian society?
The priests were scholars and shouldered the responsibility of protecting written documents. They were required to interpret nature and explain it.
What were the beliefs of the Egyptians about life after death?
The Egyptians believed in life after death. They also believed that man had to give an account of his deeds on earth to Osiris, the most powerful God of life and death. For them life on earth was temporary and was needed only to prepare for the next life. Hence the whole of Nile Valley was reserved for the dead.
The dead body would be smeared with various chemicals and wrapped in a thin cloth and preserved. The body preserved like this was called ‘Mummy’ and was kept in a specially designed coffin. These coffins were buried along with items needed for daily use in their life after death as also small dolls of a cook and a barber to fulfil all future needs. They also built pyramids over these graves.
What is meant by ‘Mummy’?
How were the dead bodies preserved?
The Egyptians believed in life after death. Hence the dead body would be smeared with various chemicals and wrapped in a thin cloth. Thus the entire body would be preserved. This kind of protected body was called ‘Mummy’.
What were pyramids? Mention their special features.
Write a short note on pyramids.
Pyramids are structures built over graves. Egyptians built tall towers over the graves using huge blocks of stones in order to protect the eternal sleep of the dead. Kings and wealthy people vied with each other to build taller and taller towers. The Greeks called these structures pyramids.
Who were ‘Pharaohs’? How did their rule come to an end?
The kings of Egypt were called Pharaohs. ‘Pharaoh’ means a person who lives in a palatial house. An Arabian tribe called Hyksos attacked Egypt and brought an end to the rule of the Pharaohs.
Why didn’t the Hyksos become popular rulers of Egypt?
The Arabian shepherd tribe Hyksos, which put an end to the rule of the Pharaohs, ruled Egypt for 500 years. But they did not become popular because they looted the wealth of the natives.
Why did the Egyptians hate the Jews?
The Jews who came wandering through the deserts to Egypt in search of shelter, began to cooperate with the foreign rulers. They even assisted them in collecting taxes and in administration. Therefore, the Egyptians hated the Jews too.
Which were the different foreign powers that ruled Egypt?
The Hyksos, the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks and the Romans were the different foreign powers who ruled over Egypt from time to time.
How did Egypt come under the rule of the Greeks?
During the 6th century B.C.E. Persians occupied Egypt and made it a part of their empire. When Persia was conquered by Alexander during the 4th century B.C.E. Egypt passed into the hands of the Greeks. One of Alexander’s generals declared himself independent and established the dynasty of Ptolemies in Egypt. It was these Greeks who founded the city of Alexandria. Egypt remained under the Greeks till the Romans captured it in 30 B.C.E.
How did Egypt become a province of the Roman Empire?
During the first century B.C.E., Romans attacked Egypt. The last Egyptian queen Cleopatra tried her best to save her country from the Romans. It was said that the Romans feared her beauty mor.e than her troops, However, in 30 B.C.E., the Roman Emperor Augustus defeated Cleopatra and captured her. But, she consumed poison and ended her life. From then on Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.
What is the meaning of the term ‘Mesopotamia’? Where is Mesopotamia?
‘Mesopotamia’ means ‘the land between two rivers’. This area is in West Asia between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Today this region is called Iraq.
What was the cause for the conflicts between Mesopotamia’s northern hill tribes and the southern nomadic tribes?
It was the fertility of Mesopotamia that attracted people to it. Since food crops could be grown with little effort, the northern hill tribes and southern nomadic tribes of the desert tried to establish control over this area. This rivalry between the tribes led to conflicts between them.
Name the different groups which established their authority over Mesopotamia.
Name the different regions of Mesopotamia and the groups that ruled those regions.
Babylonia, Akhad, Sumer and Assyria were the different regions of Mesopotamia. The different groups that ruled these regions were Babylonians, Akhadians, Sumerians and Assyrians. In addition, the Chaldeans too ruled Mesopotamia;
What is Mesopotamian writing called?
The Mesopotamian writing is called Cuneiform.
Who built the “hanging gardens’ of Babylonia? What is said to be the purpose behind putting up these gardens?
Most of the scholars believe that King Nebuchadnezzar II was the one who created the hanging gardens on the banks of the river Euphrates around 7th century B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar’s wife Amitis was from Mead. It is said that Nebuchadnezzar got the gardens built in order to console his wife who was missing the beautiful environment of hills, trees and flowers of her motherland.
What are Ziggurats?
The Sumerians, the hilly tribe from the north, used to worship their gods on top of the hills. After they came and settled in the plains of the south, they built artificial hills and established their places of worship there. These sacred places were called Ziggurats. Since they did not know how to build stairs, they surrounded them with sloping galleries.
Who was Hammurabi? What was his main contribution?
Hammurabi was the famous ruler of the Amorites who ruled Babylonia. He framed the Law codes and made Babylonia the best administered kingdom. Hammurabi’s codes were the first written laws. He got them engraved on rocks. Hammurabi’s law is based on the principle of An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’.
Describe the political ups and downs in the history of Mesopotamia.
How did Mesopotamia pass into Greek rule?
The first people to enter into Mesopotamia and establish their rule were the Sumerians in 4000 B.C.E. Later, they were overpowered by the Akhadians. Afterwards, Akhadians were defeated by the Amorites. Hammurabi was the famous ruler of the Amorites. The Hittites, who came later, occupied the valley of Mesopotamia.
These Hittites were defeated by Assyrians. Assyrians occupied not only Mesopotamia but also the entire West Asia and Egypt. During the 7th century B.C.E. Chaldeans established themselves in Babylonia and developed it into a great city. During the 6th century B.C.E. Chaldeans were overthrown by the Persians. Two hundred years later Alexander transformed this place into a Greek province.
Why is the river Hwang Ho called the ‘sorrow of China?
Which river is called the ‘sorrow of China? Why?
The Hwang Ho river, which led to the establishment of the Chinese civilization, is called the sorrow of China. After floods, the Hwang Ho river changes its course in an unpredictable manner and inundates houses and agricultural lands. It also renders the irrigation canals useless. That is why people called it the ‘sorrow-of China’.
Which were the two dynasties that ruled ancient China? Mention their period.
The two dynasties that ruled ancient China were the Shang and the Chau. The Shang dynasty ruled in the period between 18th century B.C.E. and 12th century B.C.E. The Chau dynasty ruled from 12th century B.C.E. to 250 B.C.E.
Describe the social conditions in ancient China.
In ancient China, kings and higher officials formed the upper class of society. The merchants and craftsmen formed the class next to them. Below them were the peasants. The lowest strata of social hierarchy were the slaves. The prisoners of wars were made slaves by the kings.
What are the special features of the Great Wail of China?
The Chinese Empire consisted of seven big states. Every state constructed a wall along its boundary for protection. Emperor Shihuangti ordered that the walls of the northern Chinese states be connected. The construction started in the 7th century B.C.E. and continued till the 16th century C.E. When the work was completed, it stretched to more than 5000 kilometers. The Great Wall of China is one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
What were the Chinese beliefs regarding death?
The Chinese worshipped their dead ancestors. They believed that a dead person became a spirit and that spirit had special powers. The dead body was buried along with various wooden articles, pots, bronze vessels and other objects.
What were the main features of the Chinese script?
The Chinese tradition of writing began with pictures and got transformed into an ideographic script They used to write on silk and bamboo slips.
Multiple Choice Questions
The Egyptian civilization took birth due to
(A) River Nile
(A) River Nile
Which of the following is not an achievement of the Egyptians?
The dead body was smeared with various chemicals and wrapped in a thin cloth and preserved by the people of
The Egyptian kings were called
The tall towers built over graves by the Egyptians were called pyramids by the
Cleopatra, the Egyptian Queen, was defeated by the Roman emperor
(A) julius Caesar
‘Mesopotamia’ in Greek means
(A) land between two seas
(B) Land between two nations
(C) land between two rivers
(D) The river between Two nations
(C) land between two rivers
Mesopotamia lies between the rivers
(A) Ganga and Yamuna
(B) Hwang Ho and Yang-Tsi-kiyang
(C) Jhelum and Sutlej
(D) Euphrates and Tigris
(D) Euphrates and Tigris
Cuneiform writing was used in
The hanging gardens of Babylonia were created by
The Sumerian places of worship are called
The Amorite king who issued laws based on the principle of ‘Eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth’ was
The river which is known as the ‘sorrow of China’ is
(A) Yang Tse
(C) Hwang Ho
(D) Tsang Po
(C) Hwang Ho
The king who ordered the construction of the Great Wall of China was
(A) Qin- Shi Huangdi
(A) Qin- Shi Huangdi
Fill In The Blanks
- Hieroglyphics’ means Sacred Writings
- Rulers of Egypt were called Pharaohs.
- The Egyptian civilization was born and developed in the Nile valley.
- The egyptians believed that the man had to give an accoubt of his deeds on earth to Osiris the God of life and death.
- The dead body was processed and then buried in Egypt. This kind of protected body was called Mummy
- The huge towers built on the graves of the kings in Egypt are called pyramids
- ‘Mesopotamia’ means the land between two rivers.
- The most famous Amorite ruler of Babylonia was Hammurabi.
- The script used by the Mesopotamians is called Cuneiform.
- Babylonia, Sumeria, Akhad and Assyria are the different regions of mesapotamia.
- The hanging gardens of Mesopotamia were built by king Nebuchadnezzar.
- Mesopotamian places of worship were called Ziggurats.
- ‘Eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth’ is the basis of hammurabi’s code
- The river known as the ‘sorrow of China’ is hwang ho.
- The first dynasty to rule China was shang dynasty.
- The Chinese emperor Qin Shihuangti ordered that the walls of the northern Chinese states be connected.
- The total length of the Great Wall of China is about 5000 kilometres.
- The Greeks referred to Mesopotamia as land between the rivers
Match The Following
|a. River Hwang Ho||1. Mesopotamia|
|b. Cuneiform||2. King of Amorites|
|c. Cleopatra||3. Shang|
|d. Hammurabi||4. China|
|e. Chinese dynasty||5. Last Queen of Egypt|
a – 4, b – 1, c – 5, d – 2, e – 3.
|a. Land between rivers||1. Ziggurats|
|b. Sacred writing||2. Mesopotamia|
|c. Protected dead bodies||3. Pharaoh|
|d. King of Egypt||4. Hieroglyphics|
|e. Towers of Babel||5. Hanging gardens|
a – 2, b – 4, c – 6, d – 3, e – 1.