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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 8 Social Science History Important Questions Chapter 5 Greek, Roman and American Civilization
Where is Greece located?
Greece is a peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea. The Aegean Sea separates Greece from Asia Minor. The Balkan mountain range passes through the middle of Greece, dividing Greece into small hills and valleys.
Write a note on the Greek city-states.
How did the Greek city-states evolve?
Three thousand years ago, every tribe in Greece had a king and every king had an advisory committee of senior citizens. As industries and businesses grew, the villages of the tribes slowly grew into small towns and later into cities. They later became city-states or Polis. Every city-state had its own army, God and administration. Though the city-states had maintained their separate identity, culturally they were similar.
Name two important dtp-states of Greece.
Athens and Sparta were two important city-states of Greece.
Write a note on Athens.
Athens was an important city-state of Greece. It was the capital of the state of Attica. It had monarchy in the beginning and later developed into oligarchy. Later a person by name Draco became the dictator and enforced inhuman laws in Athens. When anarchy set in in Athens, the middle class and the working class joined hands to restore democracy. This was followed by the golden age of Pericles.
Why is the period of Pericles referred to as the Golden Age of Athens?
During the time of Pericles, art, literature, science, philosophy and other fields of knowledge flourished. Pericles referred to Athens as ‘School of Hellas’. Hence the period of Pericles is referred to as the Golden Age of Athens.
Write a note on Sparta.
Sparta, the city-state of Darien tribe, was the military state of Greece. It was militarily very strong due to the rigorous and compulsory training imparted to children.
Why did enmity develop between Athens and Sparta?
Athens organised a federation of city-states called ‘Confederacy of Delos’ that took the shape of an empire. This created enmity between Athens and Sparta resulting in the Peloponnesian wars. Finally Athens lost to Sparta and became its feudatory.
Between whom were the Peloponnesian wars fought? What was the result?
Athens and Sparta were important Greek city-states. The organisation of a federation of city- states by Athens created enmity between Athens and Sparta. This resulted in two Peloponnesian wars in which Sparta defeated Athens. Due to the conflict between Athens and Sparta, the Greek civilisation lost its importance.
Describe the religious conditions under the Greeks.
The Greeks worshipped many gods and goddesses. They believed their gods resided on Mount Olympus. Zeus was the most important God. The Greeks also worshipped Apollo, Aphrodite, Ares and other gods. Athena was the patron goddess of Athens. Zeus temple is located at Olympia.
Describe education and literature under the Greeks.
The Greeks had a great tradition of teacher philosophers. Socrates was the teacher of Plato, and Plato was the teacher of Aristotle. Alexander, the King of Macedonia, was a student of Aristotle. Plato founded an institution of learning called Academy’.
Aristotle founded a centre of learning called ‘Lyceum’. Demosthenes was a great orator. Homer wrote the epics ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’. Herodotus and Thucydides were important historians. Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides were important playwrights.
Describe the contribution of Homer to Greek literature.
Homer was a great poet and wrote two epics, the ‘Iliad’ and the ‘Odyssey’. These epics describe the lifestyles and the socio-religious system of the time. While ‘Iliad’ narrates the victory of the Greeks over the city of Troy, ‘Odyssey’ narrates the journey and adventures of the Greek hero Odysseus while coming back home after the victorious battle of Troy.
Name the famous Greek writers and their writings.
Homer was a great epic poet. He wrote two epics, the ‘Iliad’ and the ‘Odyssey’. Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides were important playwrights. Sophocles was the most renowned playwright and wrote plays like ‘Oedipus the King’ and ‘Antigone’. Euripides was another writer who wrote satirical plays. Herodotus and Thucydides were important historians. Herodotus is considered the father of history.
Write a note on the development of science under the Greeks.
Pythagoras and Thales were stalwarts in Mathematics. Democritus who presented the atom theory vaguely and Anaximander who advocated the evolution of humans from fish, were the important scientists. Hippocrates, called the Father of Medicine, had mastered the method of providing medicines scientifically for human diseases.
Write a note on Olympic games.
When and how were the Olympic Games started?
The Olympic Games began in Greece in 776 B.C.E. The games, which were held once in four years, were also used for measurement of time. The games used to be arranged at Olympia in Illis area as part of the Olympic festival. This festival was celebrated in honour of the peace pact between Illis and Pisa city-states.
How did the ancient Olympic Games come to an end?
The ancient Olympic Games came to an end in the 4th century C.E. when the Christian Emperor of Byzantine Theodossus banned it.
Describe the achievements of Alexander.
Alexander was the king of Macedonia. He was successful in building a huge empire. He established his authority over the Greek city-states. In his short-lived life, he set out to conquer the whole world. He succeeded in capturing Egypt, Babylon and Persia. Then he advanced towards India. While returning after a war from India he died in Babylonia in 323 B.C.E.
Who were the famous philosophers of Greece?
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were the famous philosophers of Greece.
What was the basic foundation of Socratic thought?
“Knowledge is virtue; virtue is knowledge” was the foundation of Socratic thought.
Why was Socrates sentenced to death?
The thoughts and teachings of Socrates enraged some Athenians. These people heaped various accusations against him to have him punished. As a result, the jury sentenced him to death.
Who was the architect of the idea of ‘Ideal Republic’?
Plato, a disciple of Socrates, was the architect of the idea of ‘Ideal Republic’.
Name the school started by Plato. What did it become famous as?
Plato started a school named ‘The Academy’ in Athens. It became famous as the first university of Europe.
List the literary works of Plato.
‘The Republic’ and ‘Text and History’ were the literary works of Plato.
Name the school started by Aristotle.
Lyceum was the school started by Aristotle.
Write a note on the geographical location of Italy.
Italy is a peninsula spreading down into the Mediterranean Sea towards the south of Europe. The Alps mountain range is to the north of Italy and the Alpines mountain range passes through the centre of Italy.
Where is Rome located?
Rome is on the banks of River Tiber. It is twenty-five kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea.
Why were the ancient people of Rome referred to as Patricians?
The Romans considered Romulus and Remus as their forefathers. Hence they were referred to as Patricians, derived from a Latin term ‘Pater’ meaning ‘father’.
Which were the two political advisory institutions of Rome? What were their powers?
The Romans had an ‘Assembly’ and a ‘Senate’ as political advisory institutions. The Assembly was made up of all middle-aged men, whereas the Senate was an elite institution, which was very influential. The Senate had the power to reject the proposals of the Assembly and the king.
Describe the features of the Roman republic.
Under the Roman republic, Senate and Assembly functioned as advisory institutions. The members of these institutions headed the armies during the wars. They enforced the law and dispensed justice. The Senate was controlled by the upper, land-owning class, known as Patricians.
The common people were known as Plebians. They had limited rights. During the 5th century B.C.E. Plebians got the right to choose the members of the Tribune. It was around this time the Roman law was implemented and rule of law was established.
Describe the Roman social organization.
Roman society had two classes of people. They were the Patricians and Plebians. The Patricians were the elite in society. They were the landowners and formed the upper class. The Plebians were the common people. They were the ordinary workers and small landowners, artisans, small traders and soldiers.
They had limited rights. They were meant to pay taxes and undergo punishment. In addition, the Roman society had a large number of slaves who had no rights and all the hard labour was done by them.
Between whom were the Punic wars fought?
A desire for expansion exposed the Romans to newer conflicts. They fought with Carthage, a coastal town in North Africa. Sicily, a fertile area, was the bone of contention between the two. These wars went on for 118 years and are referred to as ‘Punic Wars’. The Carthageans were defeated in these wars.
Describe the system of slavery in Rome.
Conquests and victories brought innumerable slaves into Rome. The slaves had no rights of citizenship. They were the private property of their owners. Slaves were also sold. Sometimes, under special circumstances, they were granted freedom.
Romans-at times used these slaves as gladiators. They amused at the combat of the gladiators from the amphitheatre. A majority of slaves and prisoners lost their lives in such fights. At times the slaves also rose in rebellion.
Who were ‘Gladiators’?
The wrestlers of ancient Rome were called Gladiators. There were both expert and amateur wrestlers. They organized fights to entertain the spectators. These fights fought between human beings and sometimes between human beings and animals often ended in gruesome deaths.
What is Colosseum?
The place where gladiator shows and other entertainment programmes were held in ancient Rome was called amphitheatre or ‘Colosseum’. It was circular or semi-circular in shape. It had areas meant for the spectators to watch the shows.
Who was Spartacus? Describe his rebellion.
As the Roman Empire grew in power, it also witnessed bribery, corruption, assassinations and rebellions. One of the major rebellions which took place in Rome was led by Spartacus, a leader of the slaves. More than 60,000 slaves joined him in this rebellion, which lasted for a year. But, it was put down ruthlessly and around 60,000 slaves were crucified.
Name some prominent military generals who ruled Rome.
Pompeii, Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar were prominent military generals of Rome.
How did the Roman republic come to an end?
After the assassination of Julius Caesar there were widespread rebellions in Rome. Caesar’s nephew Octavius took revenge against those who had conspired against Caesar. He captured power and brought peace to Rome. With this, the Roman republic came to an end. He called himself ‘Princep’ or the First citizen of the state but did not call himself emperor.
Describe the contributions of Romans to art and architecture.
Colosseum and amphitheatre are the best examples of Roman architecture. PantJjeon, with the biggest dome, is the largest building of Rome. The Cupid and Ara Pads statues are the best examples of Roman sculpture.
Which were the civilisations of ancient Columbia?
Maya, Aztec and Inca were the civilisations of ancient Columbia.
What is meant by the’old world’and the‘new world’?
After the geographical discoveries, familiar countries of Europe, Asia and Africa came to be known as the ‘Old World’ and the newly discovered continents of America and Australia as the ‘New World’.
Who were Mayas?
The American-Indian aborigines of Yucutan area of Mexico are called Mayas.
How did the Maya civilization decline?
After the discovery of America, during the period between 1527 C.E. and 1546 C.E. there were a series of attacks on the Mayas by the Spanish forces under Cortes. As a result, their cities were completely destroyed and their civilization declined.
Describe the ‘Ceremonial Centres’ of the Mayas.
The settlements of the Mayas included huge ceremonial centres. These were called cities, but they were not inhabited by the people. These areas were utilised for religious ceremonies, markets, courts and for administrative purposes. Around these religious centres were pyramids, palaces and courtyards.
Beneath the pyramids there were buildings with rooms. In the front there were mammoth stone pillars. Usually there were carvings of priests and gods and also hieroglyphic writing on these pillars. There were temples on top of the pyramids.
Which was the settlement of the Aztecs?
The Aztecs built their city on an island in the lake of Texcoco in Mexico. The Aztecs are also called Tenochca, a name derived from their legendary ancestor, Tenoch. Their city was called Tenochtitlan meaning ‘the stone rising in the water’.
What are Indian codices?
Aztecs were a nomadic tribe that built and ruled an empire within a century. Its fall too was rapid. Its rapid rise and fall have been recorded in its oral literature and can be understood from the excavations too. The Aztec oral literature has been translated by the Spanish historians and social scientists. These have been called as the Indian codices.
Describe the achievements of Aztecs.
The Aztecs borrowed the knowledge and culture of the people they had defeated, like the Toltecs, Mayas and Zapotecs. The best of the architectural and sculptural representations are found on their buildings. They decorated their temples with carvings.
They have recorded historical and religious events using symbols and numbers through hieroglyphic writing. They learned the use of calendar from the Mayas. Their almanac gave the dates of festivals and also the list of gods influencing events periodically.
What were ‘Chinampas’?
The Aztecs had converted small islands around their island-city into agricultural lands. These were called ‘Chinampas’.
Aztecs were worshippers of nature. How?
Describe the religious practices of the Aztecs.
Aztecs were worshippers of nature. They worshipped Sun, Moon, Air and Water. Aztecs also followed some inhuman practices like human sacrifice. It was said that they sacrificed more than 20,000 prisoners when the pyramid of Tenochtitlan was dedicated.
Describe the extent of the Inca empire.
The Inca empire, which flourished during the 15th and 16th centuries, extended over the areas of Peru, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina.
How did the Inca empire cortie to an.end?
In 1532, a Spanish army of only 200 soldiers defeated the Incas. The Spaniards murdered the Inca soldiers in a gruesome manner and took their wealth and kingdom. With this the Inca empire came to an end.
The talent of the Incas can be seen more in their organisational ability. How?
The Incas were great organisers. Their empire was divided into four provinces. Chiefs looked after the provinces. Above them was the king. The land was divided into three parts. One part was reserved for families. The other two parts were meant for the Sun god and the king respectively.
The facility of giant granaries was made throughout the kingdom. At the time of calamities the food grains stored in these granaries and cloth would be provided to the people. Every year inspectors would visit the villages to enumerate the people and keep an account of food and animals.
Describe the religious beliefs of the Incas.
The Sun God was the most important deity of the Incas. They believed that God Veerakocha was responsible for all creation. According to them, the Sun God was the link between the people and God Veerakocha. This was the reason that there was a Sun temple in all the Inca centres. They worshipped objects of nature like the Moon, the Stars and lightning and prayed to other natural phenomena.
Multiple Choice Questions
The Greeks called themselves as
The Greeks believed that their gods lived on Mount
The poet who wrote the two great epics, ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ was
Which one of the following was not a Greek city-state?
The war that weakened the Greek city-states was
(A) war against Persia
(B) Peloponnesian war
(C) war against Romans
(D) war against Carthaj
(B) Peloponnesian war
The ancient Olympic Games of Greece started in
(A) 776 B.C.E.
(B) 323 B.C.E.
(C) 776 C.E.
(D) 1896 C.E.
(A) 776 B.C.E.
Who, among the following, was not a philosopher of Greece?
Who founded the ‘Academy’ in Athens?
Who is considered as the ‘Father of Political Science’?
The wars between Rome and Carthage were’called the
( A) Peloponnesian wars
(B) Civil wars
(C) Greek wars
(D) Punic wars
(D) Punic wars
In Rome, the slaves rose in rebellion under the leadership of
(C) Mark Antony
The Roman emperors called themselves as
Maya, Aztec and Inca civilizations are called _________ civilizations.
(B) Ancient Columbian
(B) Ancient Columbian
The Mayan book _______ was used to predict the dates of eclipses.
(C) Dresden Codex
(C) Dresden Codex
The presiding deity for the Mayas was the God pertaining to
The Aztecs were called _________, a name derived from their legendary ancestor Tenoch.
The island city built by the Aztecs was
The Aztecs had converted small islands around their island city into farm lands. These were called
(A) Terrace farms
The most important deity of the Incas was
(A) God of Maize
Fill In The Blanks
- The epics written by Homer are ‘Iliad’ and Odyssey
- Greeks referred to their dictators as tyrants
- The foundation for the study of medicine was laid by Hippocrates in greece
- The first to have analysed history was Herodotus.
- The Greek city-state known for democracy was Athens.
- Alexander was the king of Macedonia.
- Peloponnesian wars were fought between Athens and Sparta.
- Olympic Games in Greece were held once in Four years.
- The modern Summer Olympic Games were started in 1896.
- The famous Greek playwright Sophocles wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’.
- In Athens, Plato started a school called Academy.
- The philosopher who started ‘LyseunT in Athens was Aristotle.
- ‘Princep’ means First citizen.
- Latin was the language of the Romans.
- The Roman society had two classes namely Patricians and Plebians.
- The two political advisory bodies of Rome were Assembly and Senate.
- The Punic wars were fought between the Romans and the people of Carthage on the northern coast of Africa.
- The wrestlers of ancient Rome were called gladiators.
- The stone sculptures of the Mayas are called Olmec.
- The American-Indian aborigines of Yucutan area of Mexico are called Mayas.
- The language of the Mayas was Yucutec.
- The Maya civilization was destroyed because of the Spanish attacks during the period between 1527 C.E. and 1546 C.E. under the leadership of Cortes.
- The Mayan text that was used to predict eclipses was Dresden Codex.
- Texcoco is a lake in Mexico.
- The capital city of the Aztecs was Tenochtitlan.
- The oral traditions of the Aztecs are translated into Spanish language and they are called Indian Codices.
- The well-known leader of the Incas was Tupac.
- The ruling deity of the Incas was Sun.
- Incas believed that the God Veerakocha was responsible for creation.
Match The Following
|a. Greece||1. Worshippers of Sun God|
|b. Rome||2. Ziggurat|
|c. Maya||3. Tenochca|
|d.Aztec||4. Olympic Games|
|e. Inca||5. Gladiator shows|
|6. Olmec art|
a – 4, b – 5; c – 6, d – 3; e – 1.
|a. Chinampa||1. Rule by a few|
|b. Indian Codices||2. Agricultural islands|
|c. Dresden Codex||3. Stone carvings|
|d. Colosseum||4. Oral texts of the Aztecs|
|e. Oligarchy||5. Book used to predict eclipses|
a – 2, b – 4, c – 5, d – 6, e – 1: