Students can download Class 8 Sociology Chapter 4 Types of Society Important Questions, KSEEB Class 8 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and to clear all their doubts, score well in final exams.
Karnataka State Syllabus Class 8 Social Science Sociology Important Questions Chapter 4 Types of Society
How is the word ‘society’ derived?
The word ‘society’ has originated from the Greek word ‘Socius’ meaning ‘companionship’ or ‘friendship’.
According to Maclver and Page, “Society is a web of social relationships. It is the complex relationship between social institutions and social groups”.
Describe the nature of society.
1. Society is a community of communities:
A community is a group or collection of groups that inhabits a locality. Society is a collection of many such communities. Every society has families, neighbourhood, rural and urban settings, etc.
2. Society is a web of social relationships:
Society is a group of people with dynamic interactions among the members. The scope of relationships between members is vast and varied. Relationships such as teacher-student, parents-children, patients-doctor, husband-wife, etc., exist in society.
3. Similarity and resemblance:
Resemblance or likeness plays an important role in the structure of society. Resemblances in various physical and psychological traits of human beings in society form the base of society. Since similarities are visible in aspirations, values, interactions, etc., among people, a sense of unity prevails among them.
4. Cooperation and division o//obour:
Cooperation means people working together towards a common goal. When there is the spirit of cooperation among people, they respond to each other’s needs. Division of labour means ‘sharing of tasks among a group of people’. Division of labour is possible because of cooperation. Society is based on cooperation.
5. Social control:
Society has its own ways of regulating the behaviour of its members. Modern society regulates its members through formal controls like law, police, rules and the Constitution. It also uses informal means such as customs, morals and traditions.
6. Society is dynamic:
Society is always dynamic; without change no society can survive for long. But the rate of change may vary. The rate of change in rural societies is slower compared to that in urban societies.
How are societies classified?
What are the different types of societies?
Societies are classified into
- hunting and food-gathering society
- pastoral society
- agricultural/rural society
- urban society
- industrial society
- information society.
What is a hunting and food-gathering society?
Explain the features of hunting and food gathering societies.
This is the simplest and the oldest of all forms of human societies. This society was very small in size; People were engaged in fishing, hunting of animals and gathering food from trees and plants. The role and status of the people were fixed based on the age and sex. There was no desire to accumulate wealth. Sharing of resources was an important feature. Stone tools were used for hunting.
What is a pastoral society?
The process of engaging in animal husbandry, that is, raising of cattle like sheep, goat, cow and buffalo for sustenance is called pastoral society.
Explain the features of pastoral society.
- People engaged in animal husbandry, that is, rearing of cattle, for general sustenance.
- Cattle herding was the main occupation.
- The society was under a single leader.
- People engaged in fishing, hunting and food gathering besides rearing cattle for sustenance.
What is nomadic life?
The movement of people from one place to another in search of food and grassland is called nomadic life.
Give the meaning of semi-nomadic community.
Though communities stayed in a particular place to practice agriculture and other professions, they continued to move out for cattle herding. Such communities are called semi-nomadic communities.
Explain nomadic and semi-nomadic society.
Nomadic life is a way of life. The movement of people from one place to another in search of food and grassland is called nomadic life. This is different from migration. Though communities stayed in a particular place to practice agriculture and other professions, they continued to move out for cattle herding. Such communities are called semi-nomadic communities.
Write a note on agricultural/rural society.
How did agriculture gain importance in society?
During this stage of evolution of society, people left nomadic life and settled in a place engaging in agriculture. The society was a village-based society. Invention of the plough created a revolution in agriculture. Plough-driven animals were used for agriculture.
Mention the features of agricultural/rural society.
- People gave up nomadic life and settled in a place.
- They engaged primarily in agriculture.
- Invention of the plough created a revolution in agriculture. Plough-driven animals were used for agriculture.
According to Bogardus, “village is a group of families engaged in simple life of thrift, with less population density, and having primary relationships”. According to S.C. Dube, “A group of families residing in a place is called a village”.
Explain the features of rural society.
- Small in size: Majority of the Indians live in villages. Villages are small in size and have less density of population.
- Influence of primary and family relationships: Rural societies have primary relationships. Family influences most of the social life. Joint families are another major feature of rural societies.
- Simple economic life: Rural life is simple and thrifty. As die sources of income are limited, they lead a simple life. They depend on agriculture for their sustenance.
- Neighbourhood: Neighbourhood is another important feature of rural societies. The neighbourhood takes part in all celebrations, rituals and festivals.
Describe the structure of agricultural society.
Explain the relationship between land and agriculture.
The structure of agricultural society is based on the relation to land holdings, relationship with land and agricultural activity.
1. Jajmani system:
Under this system there were two classes – one the serving class and the other the served. The serving class provided agricultural services and received agricultural produce in return.
2. Zamindari system:
This system came into prominence during the rule of the Mughals. Any person who owned an area of land or had the hereditary rights to a share in the agricultural production was officially termed zamindar.
3. Ryotwari system:
This system was introduced by the British. Under this system, the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants.
4. Mahalwari system:
Under this system, tax was fixed based on the yield of the estate or mahal. A few among the mahal owners were selected and given the responsibility of supervising and collecting taxes.
5. Tenancy system:
A tenant was a farmer who had secured the right to till the land. Under this system there were two types of tenants – permanent tenants and temporary tenants. Permanent tenants had some ownership over the land they were tilling, but the temporary tenants had no claim over the land they were tilling.
The landlords could take away the land from the temporary tenants and give it to whoever they wished. In order to prevent such oppression, the government introduced land reforms putting a ceiling on the maximum land a person could hold.
What is an industrial society?
The society which depends on industries that manufacture products with the use of science and technology is called an industrial society.
Write a note on industrial society.
Industrial society is the result of industrialisation. In such societies majority of the population depends on industrial work for their sustenance and a very small group depends on agriculture. In an industrialised society, the production depends on technology and division of labour. Production is in large quantities.
Describe the features of industrial society.
The features of industrial society are:
1. Industry-based economy:
In the industrial society most of the economic activities are related to industries. The society is divided into capitalists, labour class and business class.
2. Professional work:
Most of the work in society is professional by nature. Specific training and skills are required to do the jobs.
3. Transport and communication:
In an industrial society there is a wide network of transport and communication. This network is also used for transporting raw materials and finished goods.
4. Increase in migration:
With the growth of industrial centres, there has been mass migration of people from rural to urban areas affecting rural agricultural economy. Joint families have given way to nuclear families.
5. Information society:
Industrial society is information society. Today information technology has invaded every aspect of life. Knowledge has become the key to productivity. Computers have become hubs for storage of information.
Write a note on information society.
Information society is growing fast. Prove.
Industrial society is information society. Today information technology has invaded every aspect of life. People take the help of information technology to solve problems. Information society helps in not only attaining education but also in commerce and business.
It influences socio-economic life. Knowledge has become the key to productivity. Computers have become hubs for storage of information. Since information technology is needed by all, it has assumed great importance.
Multiple Choice Questions
Which one of the following is the most ancient society?
(A) Hunting and food gathering society
(B) Cattle-rearing society
(C) Farming society
(D) Industrial society.
(A) Hunting and food gathering society
Cattle herding was the main occupation of
(A) hunting and gathering society
(B) industrial society
(C) pastoral society
(D) urban society.
(C) pastoral society
In an agricultural society, ________ was used for cultivation.
(B) harvesting machines
(C) drip irrigation
Distribution of work on the basis of skill is called
(A) division of work
(B) division of labour
(C) skill division
(D) employment division.
(B) division of labour
Fill Up In The Blanks
- The hunting societies used stone tools for hunting
- In agriculture society plough is used for tilling the soil.
- The distribution of skilled work is called division of labour.
- In industriel societies, there is an increase in transport and communication.
- Mechanised production takes place in industrial society.
- The word ‘society’ is derived from the Greek word socius.
- Hunting and food gathering society is the first stage of human evolution
- The process of engaging in animal husbandry for sustenance is called pastoral society.
- Movement of people from one place to another in search of food and grassland is called nomadic life
- In Rig Veda, the head of the village was called Gramastha