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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 9 English Grammar
Sentence and its types:
Sentence: A group of words which makes complete sense is called a sentence.
- Rabindranath Tagore is one of the greatest modern poets of India.
- Bengaluru is the garden city of India.
Kinds of sentences:
1. Assertive sentence:
A sentence which makes a statement is called an assertive sentence.
(a) Yudhistira answered all the questions of the Yaksha.
(b) Upagupta was a disciple of Lord Buddha.
(c) Walking early in the morning is good for health.
(d) India won the ICC world cup – 2011.
2. Interrogative sentence:
A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence.
(a) What is your name?
(b) Where is Taj Mahal?
(c) Why did you not come to the school yesterday?
(d) Are you reading English?
3. Imperative sentence:
A sentence that expresses a command or request is called an imperative sentence.
(a) Stand up on the bench.
(b) Go out.
(c) Please lend me? 100.
(d) Come here.
4. Exclamatory sentence:
A sentence that expresses strong feelings is called an exclamatory sentence (joy, wonder, fear, sorrow etc.)
(a) What a beautiful building Taj Mahal is!
(b) How brilliant he is!
(c) What a shame!
(d) How cold the night is!
(e) Alas! She is dead.
1. Identify the different kinds of sentences given below.
(a) What a fine picture?
(b) This is a good playground.
(c) Where do you come from?
(d) Please, help me.
(a) Exclamatory sentence
(b) Assertive sentence
(c) Interrogative sentence
(d) Imperative sentence.
2. Change into assertive sentences:
(a) What a fine picture this is!
(b) How wonderful a building Vidhana Soudha is!.
(a) This is a very fine picture.
(b) Vidhana Soudha is a very wonderful building.
Parts of speech:
Words are divided into several parts of speech according to the work they do in a sentence. There are eight parts of speech.
1. Noun: A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or things:
(a) Shantiniketan was founded by Ravindranath Tagore.
(b) Bengaluru is the capital city of Karnataka.
(c) Rose is very beautiful flower.
(d) Rahul Dravid is the best test cricket player.
2. Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun:
(a) Ravindra is absent, because he is ill.
(b) Jennifer went to market and she bought the things she wanted.
(c) We should not watch T.V. continuously.
(d) They are playing in the ground.
3. Adjective: An adjective is a word used . to add something to the meaning of a noun.
(a) Krishna is a good boy.
(b) I want some water.
(c) I bought a red pen.
(d) There are twenty boys in this class.
4. Verb: A verb is a word used to express an action or state.
(a) Shakespeare wrote many plays.
(b) Children are playing in the ground.
(c) Gold and silver are precious metals.
(d) Latha is singing.
5. Adverb: An adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
(a) Monika answered the questions correctly.
(b) This garden in very beautiful.
(c) He runs fast.
6. Preposition: A preposition is a word used with a noun or pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to somethings else.
(a) The book is on the table.
(b) Kapil’s mother always regales him with tales of his naughty behaviour.
(c) I am fond of music.
(d) Children sat under a tree.
Other examples: at, near, from, to, with, down etc.
7. Conjunction: A conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences:
(a) Rekha and Reena are friends.
(b) Rekha is good at study but Reena is dull.
Other examples: because, also, or, so, etc.
8. Interjection: An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling of joy, pain, grief etc.
(a) Hurrah! We have won the game.
(b) Alas! he is dead.
Auxiliary Verbs (helping verbs)
A finite verb is one which can show tense, number and person. These finiters play a very important part in the formation of negatives, questions and question tags.
Lists of present, past, and future tenses
The word ‘a’ or ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called articles. They come before nouns.
a or an are called indefinite articles because they usually leave unspecified, the person or thing spoken of.
Before a word beginning with a consonant sound, ‘a’ is used.
a boy, a woman, a hole, a university, a union’, a ball, a one rupee note.
Before a word beginning with a vowel sound, ‘an’ is used.
Ex: an orange, an umbrella, an ass, an energy, an honest, an heir, an hour, an inkpot etc.
‘the’ is called the definite article because it normally points out to some particular person or thing.
He saw the doctor.
The cow is a useful animal.
The book you want is not available.
I. Name the parts of speech of the underlined words
- I learn English at school.
- The sun shines bright.
- He worked the sum quickly.
- There is a cow in the garden.
- Ashoka was a great emperor.
- a verb
II. Fill in the blanks with suitable articles.
a. Kiran can play ______ flute.
b. This is ______ best book of Grammar.
c. The tree has fallen upon _____ house.
d. He came to school _____ hour late.
e. I ate ______ orange.
f. I bought _______ horse, ________ goat and ______ buffalo.
a. the b. the c. the d. an e. an f. a, a, a.
Comparison of Adjectives and Adverb
We use adjectives to describe things and nouns.
Ex: a short boy, small house, big town. Adjective and adverbs have degrees. Degree means a step beyond. There are three degrees of comparison.
1. Positive degree: The Positive degree is used to denote the mere existence of some quality of what we speak about. It is used when no comparison is being made.
Ex: Krishna is a tallboy.
2. Comparative degree: The Comparative degree denotes a higher degree of the quality than the positive, and is used when two things are compared.
Ex: Kiran is taller than Krishna.
3. Superlative Degree: The Superlative degree denotes the highest degree of the quality and is used when more than two things are compared.
Ex: Nandan is the tallest boy in the class.
Change into other degrees of Comparison.
1. Rabindranath Tagore is the most famous poet of India. (Superlative Degree)
Rabindranath Tagore is more famous than any other poet in India. (Comparative Degree)
No other poet in India is as great as Rabindranath Tagore.
2. Mumbai is the biggest city in India. (Superlative Degree)
Mumbai is bigger than any other city in India. (Comparative Degree)
No other city in India is as big as Mumbai.
3. Chethan is taller than any other boy in the class. (Comparative Degree).
Chethan is the tallest boy in the class. (Superlative Degree).
No other boy in the class is as tall as Chethan: (P.D)
4. Upagupta was the best disciple of Lord Buddha. (P.D)
Upagupta was better than any other disciple of Lord Buddha. (Comparative Degree)
No other disciple of Lord Buddha was as good as Upagupta. (P.D)
5. Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is the greatest scientist of modern India. (Superlative Degree)
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is the greater than any other scientist of Modern India. (Comparative Degree).
No-other scientist of modern India is as great as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.
6. Nile is the longest river in the world. (Superlative Degree).
Nile is longer than any other river in the world. (Comparative Degree).
No other river in the world is as long as Nile. (P.D).
7. Taj Mahal is more beautiful than any other building in India. (Comparative Degree)
Taj Mahal is the most beautiful building in India. (Superlative Degree)
No other building in India is as beautiful as Taj Mahal. (P.D)
8. Rajkumar was the best actor. (Superlative Degree) Rajkumar was better than any other actor. (Comparative Degree)
No other actor was as good as Rajkumar. (P.D)
Active Voice and Passive Voice
The voice of the verb can be changed only when the sentence in S-V-O (Subject – Verb – Object) pattern i.e., when the verb is transitive.
Ex: Rama killed Ravana. (Active Voice)
(S) (V) (O)
Ravana was killed by Rama. (Passive Voice) The following table helps to change the voice of the verb.
(1) Tense does not change when Active Voice is changed into passive voice. Past participle form of the verb should be used in passive voice.
Change the voice of the verbs (Change into Passive Voice).
1. Rabindranath Tagore wrote Gitanjali.
Gitanjali was written by Rabindranath Tagore.
2. Geetha is singing a song.
A song is being sung by Geetha.
3. Yudhistira sent Nakula to fetch some water. (Active)
Nakula was sent to fetch some water by Yudhistira.
4. Aruna Asaf Ali unfurled the tri-color at Gawalia Tank Maidan.
The tricolor flag was unfurled at Gawalia Tank Maidan by Aruna Asaf Ali.
5. Kiran eats two mangoes.
The mangoes were eaten by Kiran.
6. Hermit answered all the questions of the King.
All the questions of the king were answered by Hermit.
Change into Active Voice.
1. One mango is eaten by Saraswathi.
Saraswathi eats one mango.
2. Some cure was suggested to the king by old lady.
Old lady suggested some cure to the king.
3. Fifty-eight runs were scored by Ranji.
Ranji scored fifty-eight runs.
4. Aunt was ill-treated by Jamuna.
Jamuna ill-treated aunt.
5. The silver was stolen by the convict.
The convict stole the silver.
6. The car was being driven by Ranji.
Ranji was driving the car.
Direct and Indirect Speech
We may divide sentences in four types. Each type will have its own rules for changing a sentences from direct speech into indirect speech.
I. Simple Sentence.
1. Direct: Krishna said, “I am unwell today”.
Indirect: Krishna said that he was unwell that day.
2. Direct: I said to her, “I am leaving for Mysore tomorrow”
Indirect: I told her that I was leaving for Mysore the next day.
1. Outside the inverted commas, the verb
- ‘said’ remain said
- ‘says’ remain says
- ‘said to’ becomes told
- ‘says to’ become tells
2. Remove inverted commas and put ‘that’ in their place.
3. Now changed to then
- this – that, these – those
- here – there, thus – so, ago – before
- yesterday – The previous day, next day
- tomorrow – The next day.
4. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the tense of the verb of the reported speech is changed in corresponding path.
II. Interrogative Sentences.
1. Direct: He said to Hari, “Where do you live?”
Indirect: He asked Hari where he lived.
2. Direct: She said to Rani. “Are you ready to help me?”
Indirect: She asked Rani if she was ready to help her.
- said/said to is changed to ‘asked’, enquired, told etc.
- inverted commas are removed and ‘if’ is used in ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions and nothing is used in ‘wh’ questions.
III. Imperative Sentences.
In these sentences we have orders, commands and requests. Here the sense of the direct speech determines the rules.
1. Direct: The captain said to the player, “Leave the field at once.”
Indirect: The captain ordered the player to leave the field at once.
2. Direct: He said to his father, “Please give, me some money”.
Indirect: He requested his father to give him some money.
3. Direct: My mother said to me, “never do that again”.
Indirect: My mother warned me never to do that again.
Rules: Inverted commas are removed and “to” is used instead.
IV. Exclamatory Sentences.
1. Direct: He said, “What a beautiful picture is this!”
Indirect: He exclaimed that was a very beautiful picture.
2. Direct: She siad, “What a generous man you are!”
Indirect: She admiringly exclaimed that he was a very generous man.
3. Direct: He said, “Hurrah! I have won the match”
Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that he had won the match.
1. The verb outside inverted commas and the word of exclamation determine the change to be made in indirect speech.
2. Inverted commas are removed and ‘that’ is used.
Change into Indirect speech.
1. Starnger said to king, “ I have made up my mind to kill you”.
Stranger told king that he had made up his mind to kill him.
2. Yudhistira said to Yaksha, “Please ask your questions”.
Yudhistira requested Yaksha to ask his questions.
3. The white boy said to the dark boy, “Get me some water”.
The white boy commanded the dark boy to get him some water.
4. Kapil Dev said, “My mother always regales me with tale of my naughty behaviour”.
Kapil Dev said that his mother always re-gales him with tale of his naughty behaviour.
5. Jumman told to aunt, “ My wife know best how to run the house”.
Jumman told aunt that his wife had known best how to run the house.
6. Bhagat Singh said, “I am condemned to death”.
Bhagat Singh said that he was condemned to death.
7. King said to old woman, “Is there no cure for me”
King asked old woman if there was no cure for him.
8. Tom said, “please Auntie, don’t pull the teeth out”
Tom pleaded Auntie not to pull the teeth out
Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions.
- Arjuna shot sharp arrows ______ the direction _______ the voice.
- Born _____ an orthodox Hindu Bengali family ________ 1909, _______ Kalka _______Haryana, Aruna broke convention_______ the age _______ 19.
- King decided _______ seek the advice _______ a certain hermit.
- Kalam dreamt _______ an India governed _______ noble leaders.
- Pandavas lost everything _______ the game _______ dice _______ the Kauravas.
- Jean Valjean thought _______ the silver that was laid _______ the table _______ dinner.
- We talked _______ books.
- The sky is _______ our heads.
- He cut the mango _______ a knife.
- The boy cried _______ help.
- in, of
- into, in, at, in, at, of.
- to, of.
- of, by.
- in, of,’ to.
- about, on, for.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets.
- I _______ (go) to Mysore yesterday.
- Nakula _______ (drink) water and at once_______(drop) down.
- A king has three questions and he _______ (be seek) answers to them.
- The old lady _______ (go) meeting people _______ (explain) her case.
- She _______ (write) the notes neatly.
- drank, dropped
- is seeking
- went on explaining
Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunctions.
- Many Wisemen came to the king _______ they all answered his questions differently.
- Yudhistira agreed to answer the questions of Yaksha _______ he wanted to see a possible way of saving his brothers.
- God made the country _______ man the town.
- That man is poor, _______ honest.
- I was annoyed, _______ I kept quiet.
Figures of Speech:
A figure of speech is a departure from the ordinary form of expression, or an ordinary course of ideas in order to produce a greater effect.
1. Simile: A simile is a comparison of two different things which have some point or points of similarity (resemblance). It is generally introduced by words: like, so, as.
- He fought like a lion in the battle.
- They came round us like a swarm of bees.
- His eyes are as red as blood.
2. Metaphor: Metaphor is an implied Simile.
- He was a lion in the battle.
- He is a man of iron will.
- Our eldest son is the star of our family.
- Camel is the ship of the desert.
3. Personification: Personification is a figure of speech in which inanimate objects are spoken as if they are alive.
- The garden smiled.
- Duty calls me.
- Death lays his icy hands on King.
- Spring is the daughter of Heaven and Earth.
4. Irony: Irony is a made of speech in which the real meaning is exactly the opposite of that which is literally conveyed.
- No doubt but you are the people and wisdom shall die with you.
- Surely, you are Sathya Harischandra.
Frame the questions to get the underlined words as answer.
- Rabindranath Tagore named the school ‘ ‘Shantiniketan’.
- Kiran went to Mysore.
- Latha bought 10 mangoes.
- He goes to the market to buy fruits.
- She is going to Mumbai tomorrow.
- The King asked the Hermit to answer his questions.
- Who named the school Shantiniketan?
- Where did Kiran go?
- How many mangoes did Latha buy?
- Why does he go to the market?
- When is she going to Mumbai?
- What did King ask the Hermit?
We use question tags to make some statements and ask for confirmation.
- If the statement is positive, the question tag is negative.
- If the statement is negative, the question tag is positive.
- Question tag is formed by using the helping verb and subject.
- Raman is a great scientist. Isn’t he?
- Boys are not aware of the narrator. Are they?
Add suitable question tags to the following sentences.
- Only grown-ups are silly.
- Yudhistira answered all the questions of Yaksha.
- Upagupta was not sleeping on the ground.
- Boys were playing in the ground.
- Reena goes to school.
- Aren’t they?
- Didn’t he?
- Was he?
- Weren’t they?
- Doesn’t sh