2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Students can Download Business Studies Chapter 7 Directing Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and to clear all their doubts, score well in final exams.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 1.
What is directing? (1 or 2 marks)
Answer:

  • Directing refers to the process of instructing, guiding, counselling, motivating and leading people in the organisation to achieve its objectives.
  • In simple, Directing means giving instructions and guiding people in doing work.
  • It is one of the key managerial functions performed by every manager.

Question 2.
State any two characteristics of directing function of management. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Characteristics of Directing:

  1. Directing initiates action: Directing is a key managerial function which initiates action in the organisation.
  2. Directing takes place at every level of management: Every manager from top executive to supervisor performs the function of directing.
  3. Directing is a continuous process: Directing is a continuous activity. It takes place throughout the life of the organization.
  4. Directing flows from top to bottom: Directing is first initiated at top level and flows to the bottom through organizational hierarchy.
    (Write any two points)

Question 3.
State any two importance of directing. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Importance of directing

  1. Directing helps to initiate action by people in the organisation towards attainment of desired objectives.
  2. Directing ensures that the individuals work for organizational goals.
  3. Directing guides employees to fully realize their potential and capabilities by motivating and providing effective leadership.
  4. Directing facilitates introduction of needed changes in the organization.
  5. Effective directing helps to bring stability and balance in organization.
    (Write any two points)

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 4.
Explain the principles of Directing. ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
Principles of Directing:
Following are certain guiding principles of directing which help the managers in directing process:

(1) Maximum individual contribution: This principle emphasizes that directing techniques must help every individual in the organisation to contribute to his maximum potential for achievement of organizational objectives. It should bring out untapped energies of employees for the efficiency of the organization. For this purpose management may have a good motivation plan with suitable monetary and non-monetary rewards.

(2) Harmony of objectives: Good directing should provide harmony of individual objectives of employees and the organizational objectives. This can be ensured by convincing that employee rewards and work efficiency are complimentary to each other.

(3) Unity of command: This principle insists that a person in the organization should receive instructions from one superior only. Adherence to this principle ensures effective direction.

(4) Appropriateness of direction techniques: According to this principle, depending upon situations, appropriate motivational and leadership technique should be used while directing the people. For example, for some people money can act as powerful motivator while for others promotion may act as effective motivator.

(5) Managerial communication: Effective managerial communication across all the levels in the organisation makes direction effective. Directing should convey clear instructions to create total understanding to subordinates. Through proper feedback, the manager should ensure that subordinate understands his instructions clearly.

(6) Use of informal organization: A manager should identify the informal groups or organizations present in the enterprise and make use of such organizations for effective directing.

(7) Leadership: While directing the subordinates, managers should exercise good leadership as it can influence the subordinates positively without causing dissatisfaction among them.

(8) Follow through: Mere giving of an order is not sufficient. Managers should follow it up by reviewing continuously whether orders are being implemented accordingly or any problems are being encountered. If necessary, suitable modifications should be made in the directions.

While directing, a manager has to follow these principles to make directing process effective. This helps him to deal with people of diverse background and expectations with ease and comfort.

Question 5.
State any one element of directing. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:
Elements of direction:

  1. Supervision
  2. Motivation
  3. Leadership
  4. Communication
    (Write any one point)

Question 6.
What do you understand by supervision? ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Supervision is an element of direction. It is a process as well as a function performed by supervisor.
Supervision is the process of guiding the efforts of employees and other resources to accomplish the desired objectives. It means overseeing what is being done by subordinates and giving instructions to ensure optimum utilization of resources and achievement of work targets.

Question 7.
What is supervision? Explain the role played by a supervisor,
(or)
What is Supervision? Explain the importance of supervision. ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
Supervision is an element of direction. It is a process as well as a function performed by supervisor.
Supervision is the process of guiding the efforts of employees and other resources to accomplish the desired objectives. It means overseeing what is being done by subordinates and giving instructions to ensure optimum utilization of resources and achievement of work targets.

Importance of supervision (or role played by a supervisor):
Supervision, being a process and a function performed by supervisor, plays an important role in the success of any organization (as he has direct contact with workers)

  1. Supervisor maintains friendly relations with workers. A good supervisor acts as a guide, friend and philosopher to the workers.
  2. Supervisor acts as a link between workers and management: He conveys the objectives, ideas and plans of the management to the workers and workers problems to the management. This helps to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts between management and workers / employees.
  3. Supervisor plays a key role in maintaining group unity among workers placed under his control. He sorts out internal differences and maintains harmony among workers.
  4. Supervisor ensures performance of work according to the targets set. He takes responsibility for task achievement and motivates his workers effectively. Motivated workers perform the tasks assigned to them efficiently and effectively.
  5. Supervisor provides good on the job training to the workers / employees: A skilled and knowledgeable supervisor can build efficient team of workers.
  6. Supervisory leadership plays a key role in influencing the workers in the organization. A supervisor with good leadership qualities can build up high morale among workers.
  7. A good supervisor analyses the work performed and gives feedback to the workers. He suggests ways and means of developing work skills.

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 8.
Give the meaning of motivation. ( 2 Mark )
Answer:
Motivation is the process of making subordinates to act in a desired manner to achieve certain organizational goals, (or) Motivation is the process of stimulating (or inducing) people to action to accomplish desired goals. In simple, motivation is an inducement to act.
OR
Motivation is the process which converts employees ability to work into their willingness to work by offering them incentives and inspiring them to work hard.

Question 9.
Define motivation. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
According to William G. Scout, “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.”

Question 10.
What is a motive? ( 1 Mark )
Answer:
A motive is an inner state that energises, activates or moves and directs behaviour towards goals.

Question 11.
What is Motivator? ( 1 Mark )
Answer:
Motivator is the technique used to motivate people in an organisation. E.g. pay, bonus, promotion etc.

Question 12.
State any two features of motivation. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Features of motivation:

  1. Motivation is an internal feeling: The urge, drives, desires, aspirations, striving or needs of human being which are internal, influence human behaviour. [For example, people may have the urge or desire for possessing a car or a comfortable house. These urges are internal to an individual]
  2. Motivation produces goal directed behaviour.
  3. Motivation is a complex process as the individuals differ in their expectations, perceptions and reactions, e.g., a particular type of motivation may not have uniform effect on all the members.
  4. Motivation can be either positive or negative: Positive motivation provides positive rewards like increase in pay, promotion etc. Negative motivation uses.negative means like punishment, stopping increments etc., which may also induce a person to act in the desired way.
    (Write any two points)

Question 13.
State any two benefits of motivation. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Benefits (or importance) of motivation :

  1. Motivation helps to improve performance levels of employees as well as the organisation (This is because motivated employees contribute their maximum efforts for organizational goals).
  2. Motivation helps to change negative or indifferent attitudes of employee to positive attitudes so as to achieve organizational goals.
  3. Motivation helps to reduce employee turnover and thereby saves the cost of new recruitment and training. It also helps to retain talented people in the organization.
  4. Motivation helps to reduce absenteeism in the organization.
  5. Motivation helps managers to introduce changes smoothly without much resistance from people.
    (Write any two points)

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 14.
What is motivation? Explain Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation. ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
Motivation is the process of making subordinates to act in a desired manner to achieve certain organizational goals, (or) Motivation is the process of stimulating (or inducing) people to action to accomplish desired goals.
In simple, motivation is an inducement to act.
OR
Motivation is the process which converts employees ability to work into their willingness to work by offering them incentives and inspiring them to work hard.

Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory of Motivation:
Abraham Maslow, a U.S. Psychologist, developed a theory of motivation (in 1943) based on human needs. He felt that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs. They are:

  1. Basic physiological needs: These needs include need for food (to satisfy hunger), clothing, shelter, sleep etc.  These are the most basic human needs. These needs are to be satisfied by every one in the first instance. In the organizational context, basic salary helps to satisfy these needs.
  2. Safety / security needs: These needs provide security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Examples: Job security, stability of income etc. For an individual, these needs arise only when he / she is reasonably satisfied with physiological needs.
  3. Affiliation / Belonging needs: These needs include individuals desire for affection, sense of belongingness and friendship. They become important only when physiological and safety needs are satisfied.
  4. Esteem needs: These needs include factors such as self-respect, autonomy status, recognition and attention. Once, the first three levels of needs are reasonably well satisfied, a person thinks of esteem needs.
  5. Self actualization needs: These needs include growth, self-fulfillment and achievement of goals. Thus, it is concerned with the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. It is the highest level of need in the hierarchy.

Thus, Maslow’s theory focuses on the needs as the basis for motivation. This theory is widely recognized and appreciated. The theory is still relevant because it helps the managers to realise that need level of employee should be identified to provide motivation to them.

Question 15.
State any one assumption of Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory of motivation. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:
Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory of motivation is based on the following assumptions:

  1. People’s behaviour is based on their needs. Satisfaction of such needs influences their behaviour.
  2. People’s needs are in hierarchical order, starting from basic needs to other higher level needs.
  3. A satisfied need can no longer motivate a person; only next higher level need can motivate him.
  4. A person moves to the next higher level of the hierarchy only when the lower level need is satisfied.
    (Write any one point)

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 16.
Name the theory evolved by Abraham Maslow. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation.

Question 17.
Name any one human need as stated by Abraham Maslow. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:

  1. Basic physiological needs
  2. Safety / security needs
  3. Esteem needs

Question 18.
Draw the neat diagram of Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory (Triangular diagram)
Answer:
Diagram showing Maslow’s need hierarchy theory.
2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing 1
Question 19.
Explain any four financial incentives and any four non-financial incentives used to motivate employees of a company. ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
Incentive means all measures which are used to motivate people (i.e., employees) to improve performance. These incentives may be:

I. Financial Incentives: Financial Incentives are the incentives which are in direct monetary form and serve to motivate people for better performance. The financial incentives generally used to motivate employees in a company are:

(1) Pay and allowances: Generally, all the enterprises give pay and allowances to their employees. Pay and allowances include – basic pay, dearness allowance, house rent allowance and other allowances which are paid in monetary form. Salary system consists of regular increments in the pay every year and enhancement of allowances from time to time. For every employees, salary is the basic monetary incentive.

(2) Productivity linked wage incentives: Linking wages to productivity of individuals or production groups is another form of incentive used to motivate employees. The individual or group which increases productivity will get more wages and this acts as a motivating factor.

(3) Bonus: Based on profit, employees may be given bonus. Bonus is the incentive offered over and above wages/ salary to the employees. To get bonus, employees are motivated to improve their performance.

(4) Profit sharing: Companies may share their profit with the employees. This will motivate the employees to improve their performance and contribute to increase in profits.

(5) Copartnership / stockoption: Under these incentive schemes, employees are offered shares of a company at a set price which is lower than market price. The allotment of shares creates a feeling of ownership to the employees and makes them to contribute for the growth of the organization.

(6) Retirement benefits: Several retirement benefits such as provident fund, pension and gratuity offered to the employees also acts as an incentive to motivate them.

(7) Perquisites: In many companies perquisites and fringe benefits such as use of companies car, provision of rent free accommodation, provision of free medical facilities and free education to children are offered over and above the salary. These perquisites helps to provide motivation to the employees.
(Write any four points).

II. Non-financial incentives: Non-financial incentives focus on providing psychological and emotional satisfaction to employees. Some of the important non-financial incentives are:

(1) Status: Company can motivate its employees by raising their status. Status means ranking of positions in the organisation. When company gives more authority, responsibility, rewards, recognition, perquisites and prestige of job, it raises the status of an individual and motivates him / her to improve the performance.

(2) Organisational climate: Managers may take positive measures regarding organizational climate / characteristics such as granting individual autonomy to employees, giving consideration to employees reasonable request, which helps in motivating employees to perform better.

(3) Career advancement opportunity: Providing opportunity to employees to improve their skills and giving them promotion to the higher level jobs also acts as motivating factor which encourages employees to exhibit improved performance. Appropriate skill development programmes and sound promotion policy will help in this regard.

(4) Job enrichment: Jobs can be enriched to motivate employees to work hard for better performance. Jobs can be enriched by designing jobs that include greater variety of work content, by giving workers more autonomy and responsibility and by providing the opportunity for personal growth and a meaningful work experience.

(5) Employee recognition programmes: Employee recognition programmes (a show of appreciation) such has congratulating the employee for good performance, displaying the achievement of the employee on the notice board, installing award or certificate for best performance, distributing mementos and T-shirts and rewarding an employee for giving valuable suggestions will make employees feel motivated to perform at a higher level.

(6) Job security: Providing job security to employees is another non-financial incentive that can be offered by a company to motivate them to work hard with greater zeal.

(7) Employee participation: Employees can also be motivated to work better by involving them in decision making of the issues related to them.

(8) Employee empowerment: Empowering employees by giving more autonomy and powers is yet another way of motivating employees to use their skills and talents positively in the job performance.
(Write any four points)

Thus, both financial incentives like salary, wages, bonus etc. and non-financial incentives like status, promotion opportunity, job enrichment, job security etc. will influence employees behaviour and motivate them to better their performance.

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 20.
What is leadership? ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of people by making them strive voluntarily towards achievement of organizational goals.

Question 21.
Define leadership. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
According to Koontz and Weihrich, “Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals”.
OR
According to George Terry, “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives.”

Question 22.
State any two features of leadership. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Features of leadership:

  1. Leadership indicates ability of an individual to influence others.
  2. Leadership is a continuous process.
  3. Leadership tries to bring change in the behaviour of others.
  4. Leadership indicates interpersonal relations between leaders and followers.
  5. Leadership is exercised to achieve common goals of the organization. (Write any two points)

Question 23.
State any two benefits (or importance) of leadership. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Benefits (or importance) of leadership:

  1. Leadership influences the behaviour of people and makes them to positively contribute their energies for the benefit of the organisation. Good leader always produce good results.
  2. A leader maintains personal relations and helps followers in fulfilling their needs. He creates congenial work environment.
  3. Leader plays a key role in introducing required changes in the organisation.
  4. A leader handles conflicts effectively and does not allow adverse effects resulting from the conflicts.
  5. Leader provides training to his/her subordinates.
    (Write any two points)

Question 24.
Explain the qualities of a good leader. ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
A good leader can influence the behaviour of his/her subordinates positively and can take the organisation to the success. To be a good (successful) leader, a person should possess certain qualities. Some of these qualities are:

  • Physical features: Physical features like height, weight, health and appearance determine the physical personality of an individual. A leader with good physical features can attract people. Health and endurance help a leader to work hard which inspires others to work with same spirit.
  • Knowledge: A good leader should have required knowledge and competence. He/she should have knowledge about the organisation, procedure of work, products and other details. Only such person can instruct subordinates correctly and influence them.
  • Integrity: A leader should possess high level of integrity and honesty. He should be a role model to others regarding the ethics and values.
  • Initiative: A leader should have courage and initiative. He should not wait for opportunities come to his way, rather he should grab the opportunity and use it to the advantage of organisation.
  • Communication skills: A leader should be a good communicator. He should have the capacity to clearly explain his ideas and make the people to understand his ideas. Also, he should be a good listener. He should have the patience to listen to both the superiors and the subordinates.
  • Motivation skills: A leader should be an effective motivator. He should understand the needs of people and motivate them through satisfying their needs.
  • Self confidence: A leader should have high level of self confidence and should be able to create confidence in his subordinates. He should not loose his confidence even in most difficult times.
  • Decisiveness: Leader should be decisive in managing the work. Once he is convinced about a fact, he should be firm and should not change opinions frequently.
  • Social skills: A leader should be sociable and friendly with his colleagues and followers. He should understand people and maintain good human relations with them.

All good leaders may not necessarily possess all the qualities of a good leader. But they can try to acquire them through training and conscious efforts. A good leader can see that work is completed on time and goals are achieved at minimum cost. Thus, a good leader can bring effectiveness and efficiency in the organisation.

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 25.
State any one quality of a good leader. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:

  1. Communication skills
  2. Self confidence
  3. Motivation skills

Question 26.
State any two leadership styles. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Leadership styles:

  1. Autocratic leader
  2. Democratic leader
  3. Laissez faire leader
    (Write any two)

Question 27.
State any one leadership style. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:
Autocratic leader

Question 28.
What is communication? ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Communication refers to a process of exchange of ideas, views, facts, feelings etc. between or among people to create common understanding.
OR
Communication is the process of exchange of information between two or more persons to reach common understanding.

Question 29.
Define communication. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
According to Louis Allen, “Communication is the sum of all things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”
OR
According to Koontz and Weihrich, “Communication is transfer of information from the sender to the receiver with the information being understood by the receiver.”

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 30.
State any two elements of communication process. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Elements of communication process:

  1. Sender: Sender (i.e., source) is a person who conveys his thoughts or ideas to the receiver.
  2. Message: It is the content of communication such as ideas, orders, suggestions, etc.
  3. Encoding: It is the process of converting the message into communication symbols.
  4. Media: It is the path through which encoded message is transmitted to receiver. The media or channel may be in written from, face to face, phone call, internet etc.
  5. Decoding: It is the process of converting encoded symbols of the sender.
  6. Receiver: It is the person who receives communication of the sender.
  7. Feedback: It includes all those actions of receiver indicating that he has received and understood the message of sender
  8. Noise: Noise means some obstruction or hindrance to communication.
    (Write any two points)

Question 31.
What is communication? Explain the importance of communication. ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
Communication refers to a process of exchange of ideas, views, facts, feelings etc. between or among people to create common understanding.
OR
Communication is the process of exchange of information between two or more persons to reach common understanding.

Importance of communication: Communication is one of the most central aspects of managerial activities. It is the foundation of all group activities. The following points will highlight the importance of communication.

  • Acts as basis of co-ordination: Communication acts as basis of coordination. It ensures coordination among departments, activities and persons in the organisation by explaining about organizational goals and the mode of their achievement.
  • Helps in smooth working of an enterprise: Communication makes possible for the smooth and unrestricted working of the enterprise. All organizational interactions depend on communications.
  • Acts as basis of decision making: Communication provides needed information for decision making. Only on the basis of relevant information communicated, one can take right decision.
  • Increases managerial efficiency: Communication is essential for quick and effective performance of managerial functions. The management conveys the goals and targets, issues instructions, allocates jobs and responsibilities and looks after the performance of subordinates; Communication is involved in all these aspects.
  • Promotes cooperation and industrial peace: The two way communication promotes cooperation and mutual understanding between the management and workers. This leads to industrial peace and efficient operations.
  • Establishes effective leadership: Communication is the basis of leadership. Effective communication helps to influence subordinates. While influencing people, leader should possess good communication skills.
  • Boosts morale and provides motivation: An efficient system of communication enables management to motivate, influence and satisfy the subordinates. It also helps to boost morale of employees and managers. It improves good human relations in industry.

From the above it is clear that effective communication system increases managerial efficiency and thus plays an important role in the success of any organisation.

Question 32.
What is formal communication? ( 2 marks )
Answer:
The communication which flows through official channels designed in the organisation chart is called formal communication, i.e., a communication between a superior and subordinate whereby a superior sends notice to subordinates to attend a meeting.

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 33.
State any one pattern (network) of formal communication. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:

  1. Single chain
  2. Wheel
  3. Circular
  4. Free flow
  5. Inverted V
    (Write any one point)

Question 34.
What is informal communication? ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Communication that takes place without following the formal lines of communication is called as informal communication. E.g., workers discussing about rumours that some employees likely to be transferred.

Question 35.
What is grapevine communication? ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Grapevine (or informal communication) is an informal channel of business communication which takes place without following the formal lines of communication. It spreads throughout the organisation in all directions irrespective of authority levels. E.g. workers discussing about the behaviour of the superior, discussing about rumours that some employees are likely to be transferred.

Question 36.
Name any one type of Grapevine network. ( 1 Mark )
Answer:
Types of grapevine network:

  1. Single strand network
  2. Gossip network
  3. Probability network
  4. Cluster network
    (Write any one point)

Question 37.
Give the meaning of semantic barriers of communication. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Semantic barriers are the barriers to communication which are concerned with problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions. Normally, such barriers result on account of use of wrong words, faulty translations, different interpretations etc.

Question 38.
State any two semantic barriers to communication. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Semantic barriers to communication

  1. Badly expressed message: Sometimes intended meaning may not be converged on account of inadequate vocabulary, usage of wrong words, omission of needed words etc.
  2. Symbols with different meanings: Usage of a word with several meaning may create communication barrier.
  3. Faulty translations by a translator may give different meaning to the communication.
  4. Technical Jargon (i.e., words) used by specialists may not be understood by the subordinates.
    (Write any two points)

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 39.
State any two Psychological barriers to communication. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Psychological barriers to communication:

  1. Premature evaluation of message by the receiver.
  2. Lack of attention: Non-listening of message due to lack of attention by the receiver.
  3. Loss of message by transmission and poor retention of message by the receiver.
  4. Distruct between the sender and the receiver of message.
    (Write any two points)

Question 40.
State any two organizational barriers to communication. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Organisational barriers to communication:

  1. Some times, organizational policy may not be supportive to free flow of communication.
  2. Rigid rules and cumbersome procedures may be a hurdle to communication.
  3. Sometimes a status conscious manager may create a problem.
  4. Complexity in organisation structure may lead to delay and distortion in communication.
  5. Inadequate organizational facilities for free flow of communication.
    (Write any two points)

Question 41.
State any two personal barriers to communication. ( 2 Marks )
Answer:
Personal barriers to communication:

  1. Fear of challenge to authority.
  2. Lack of confidence of superior on his subordinates.
  3. Unwillingness to communicate
  4. Lack of proper incentives
    (Write any two points)

Question 42.
What are the common barriers to effective communication? ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
Semantic barriers to communication

  • Badly expressed message: Sometimes intended meaning may not be converged on account of inadequate vocabulary, usage of wrong words, omission of needed words etc.
  • Symbols with different meanings: Usage of a word with several meaning may create communication barrier.
  • Faulty translations by a translator may give different meaning to the communication.
  • Technical Jargon (i.e., words) used by specialists may not be understood by the subordinates.

Psychological barriers to communication:

  • Premature evaluation of message by the receiver.
  • Lack of attention: Non-listening of message due to lack of attention by the receiver.
  • Loss of message by transmission and poor retention of message by the receiver.
  • Distruct between the sender and the receiver of message.

Organisational barriers to communication:

  • Some times, organizational policy may not be supportive to free flow of communication.
  • Rigid rules and cumbersome procedures may be a hurdle to communication.
  • Sometimes a status conscious manager may create a problem.
  • Complexity in organisation structure may lead to delay and distortion in communication.
  • Inadequate organizational facilities for free flow of communication.

Personal barriers to communication:

  • Fear of challenge to authority.
  • Lack of confidence of superior on his subordinates.
  • Unwillingness to communicate
  • Lack of proper incentives

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 43.
Suggest the suitable measures to improve communication effectiveness.
(Or)
Suggest measures to overcome the barriers to effective communication. ( 8 Marks )
Answer:
Measures to overcome the barriers and improve communication effectiveness:
Following are some of the measures to overcome the barriers and improve communication effectiveness:

  • Clarify the ideas before communication: The person sending the message should be very clear in his / her mind about what he / she wants to say. The message should be stated in such a manner that it is clearly conveyed to subordinates.
  • Communicate according to the needs of receiver: Manager should adjust his communication according to the education and understanding levels of subordinates.
  • Consult others before communicating: Before actually communicating the message, it is better to involve others in developing a plan for communication. Participation and involvement of subordinates may help to gain ready acceptance and willing co-operation of subordinates.
  • Be aware of languages, tone and content of message: The language used should be understandable to the receiver and should not offend the sentiments of listeners. The tone of the message should not hurt the feelings of the receiver. Further, the message should be brief. It must be able to evoke response from the listeners.
  • Convey things of help and value to listeners: While conveying message to others, it is better to know the interests and needs of the people with whom you are communicating.
  • Ensure proper feedback: The communicator may ensure the success of communication by asking questions regarding the message conveyed. The receiver of communication may also be encouraged to respond to communication. The communication process may be improved by the feedback received.
  • Communicate for present as well as future: Communicate according to the requirements of present as well as future needs.
  • Follow up communications: There should be regular follow up and review on the instructions given to subordinates. Such follow up measures help in removing hurdles, if any, in implementing the instructions.
  • Be a good listener: Manager should be a good listener. Patient and attentive listening solves half of the problems.

Thus, by taking up these measures, managers can promote effective communication.

I. Multiple choice questions (1 Mark each)

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not an element of direction?
(a) Motivation
(b) Communication
(c) Delegation
(d) Supervision
Answer:
(c) Delegation

Question 2.
The motivation theory which classifies needs in hierarchical order is developed by
(a) Fred Luthans
(b) Scott
(c) Abraham Maslow
(d) Peter F. Drucker
Answer:
(c) Abraham Maslow

Question 3.
Which of the following is a financial incentive?
(a) Promotion
(b) Stock incentive
(c) Job Security
(d) Employee Participation
Answer:
(b) Stock incentive

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 4.
Which of the following is not an element of communication process?
(a) Decoding
(b) Communication
(c) Channel
(d) Receiver
Answer:
(b) Communication

Question 5. Grapevine is
(a) Formal communication
(b) Barrier to communication
(c) Lateral communication
(d) Informal communication
Answer:
(d) Informal communication

Question 6.
‘Status’ comes under the following type of barriers
(a) Semantic barrier
(b) Organisational barrier
(c) Non semantic barrier
(d) Psychological barrier
Answer:
(b) Organisational barrier

Question 7.
The software company promoted by Narayana Murthy is
(a) Wipro
(b) Infosys
(c) Satyam
(d) HCL
Answer:
(b) Infosys

Question 8.
The highest level need in the need Hierarchy of Abraham Maslow is
(a) Safety need
(b) Belongingness need
(c) Self actualization need
(d) Prestige need
Answer:
(c) Self actualization need

Question 9.
The process of converting the message into communication symbols is known as
(a) Media
(b) Encoding
(c) Feedback
(d) Decoding
Answer:
(b) Encoding

2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

Question 10.
The communication network in which all subordinates under a supervisor communicate through supervisor only is:
(a) Single chain
(b) Inverted V
(c) Wheel
(d) Free flow
Answer:
(c) Wheel.

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