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Karnataka 2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Answers Report Writing
Report writing is an important writing skill which can cover a number of topics are they science, journalistic or of general interest. Some characteristics of reports:
- They are always factual.
- The information is verifiable.
- They are aimed at people with a specific interest in that area.
- The passive form of the verb is generally used.
Reading and Interpreting Graphs
Graphs and charts communicate information visually. Therefore graphs are often used in newspapers, magazines and business reports around the world.
Some of the graphs commonly used are as follows.
- Line graphs are diagrams that present data using dots and lines. One variable is indicated on the vertical line, and the other is indicated on the horizontal.
- Bar graphs can be either vertical or horizontal. It is important to read the labels carefully on each bar.
- A pie chart shows the relationships between parts to a whole. The whole is contained in the circle (pie) and divided into appropriately sized proportions, or slices.
Interpretation of Graphs
Interpretation of a graph involves reading, understanding and expressing the data represented in a verbal medium. In other words, after consulting the graph, you must be able to transfer the data into a report in the form of a paragraph of about 120 – 150 words.
Tips for writing a report based on a graph
While writing a report, take into account the following.
Title : The kind of information found on the graph
Key : Additional information included in the graph
Scale : Tells how many or how much
Axis lines : Vertical axis runs along the side of the graph. The horizontal axis runs across the bottom of the graph.
Bar labels : Describe individual parts of the graph
Look at the following bar graph followed by a report.
Literacy rate in India after Independence
A report bas£d on the graph can be like this:
The above bar graph represents the literacy rate in India after independence. Spread over a duration of 60 years (from 1951 to 2011), the rate of literacy has attained a steady growth from just 16.7 percent in 1951 to a considerable 74.04 in 2011. As can be ascertained from the graph, in the initial years of independence, i.e, during the first 30 years , the growth rate has been below ten percent.
There is a big leap in the 1980s as there is an all time increase of 14 percent. The next decade has also witnessed a growth of about 13 percent. The rate has witnessed a fall in the next decade as it is less than 10 percent. The policies of the Governments and their implementation might be the reason for the unsteady trend in the growth of literacy rate. However, the overall growth is promising since it is about to cross 75 percent in 2011.
Here is a bar chart showing the results of a survey on the working patterns of both rural and urban women. The chart provides information about how these women spend the hours of their day for some chosen activities on average. Based on this information, write a report in about 150 words.
The above bar chart gives the results of a survey on the working patterns of both rural and urban women. The chart clearly tells us that rural women spend less than an hour at cooking than their urban counterparts who spend nearly two hours in cooking. Rural women spend only half an hour in watching TV. While urban women watch TV for more than an hour. Rural women spend less than half an hour for hobbies while urban women spend 45 minutes. Rural women also lag behind urban women in the time spent at rearing children on which urban women spend nearly two hours. Furthermore, due to women illiteracy in the rural area, the time spent in reading is very less, where as urban women read for about half an hour in a day. Totally this chart provides the information that the rural women are spending less time in all there activities compared the urban women.
The pie chart given below represents the results of a survey conducted by a non – profit NGO to understand how a rural family spends its income on various items. Based on the information, write a report in about 200 words.
The above pie chart gives the results of a survey conducted by a non – profit NGO to understand how a rural family spends its income on various clothing. A Rural family spends 30% of its income on food and which is very important and necessary. Nearly 25% of their income is spent on Health, because of lack of hygiene. They spend only 10% on education because a number people are engaged in agricultural activities. They spend only 10% on savings. This is very less savings They spend 20% of their income in repaying loans. They have to borrow large amount of money for agricultural activities.
The line graph given below shows population growth during pre-independence and postindependence period in India. Use the information to write a report on the trends of population growth.
The above line graph shows the population growth during the pre-independence and post-independence period in India. Over a duration of 40 years during pre-independence, the population was just below one crore people but by the end of the decade during 1910 it started to rise steadily and crossed one crore. After independence, within ten years the – population increased to 1.7 crores. It grew to 2.8 crores by the end of 1960. After 1970 it rose to 3 crores and during the period from 1970 to 2000 it grew sharply to over five crores. In the decade between 2000 and 2010 the population of India crossed the six crores mark.