2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Answers Summarising

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Karnataka 2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Answers Summarising

Summarising is an important study skill, basically involving compression of ideas. It can also help students to optimize on study time.

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

How to summarise:

  • When you summarise a passage, it is useful to identify.
  • The main and sub-points and note them down in the way you did in the previous section on note-making.
  • Write complete sentences and combine them into a coherent paragraph.
  • Do not add your own ideas or opinions.
  • Try to give a suitable title to the summary.

I) Substitute the expressions given below with one word each. One has been done for you:

Question 1.
A short story that teaches a moral or truth ______________.

Question 2.
A story about great people who never actually lived ______________.

Question 3.
To form a judgment about what is going to happen in the future ______________.

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

Question 4.
To warn someone of coming danger ______________.

Question 5.
One who is all-powerful ______________.

Question 6.
One who sees the bright side of life ______________.

Question 7.
One who believes in the existence.of God ______________.

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

Question 8.
A place where orphans live ______________.

Question 9.
A position for which no salary is paid ______________.

Question 10.
A book was written by an unknown writer ______________.

(honorary, mythology, portend, anonymous, theist, predict, optimist, orphanage, omnipotent.)

Did you notice that reducing long descriptive expressions to single words is a technique used to state an idea briefly?

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

II) Identifying the main idea while leaving out examples or repetition is another way of condensing.

Look at the following sentences.
1. Our building plans have met all the conditions that the authorities have asked for.
This sentence can be rewritten as – Our buiding.plans have met all the conditions of the authorities.

2 There was a 20% increase in the taxes and so there were serious protests against it.
This sentence can be rewritten as – A 20% tax increase resulted in serious protests.

III. Let us now look at longer passages and see how they can be summarised:
Here is a sample of a passage and its summary.

Are we masters of our destinies? Who shapes our destiny? It is said that your destiny is right in your hand. We hape our destiny; we can create our own luck. Researchers suggest that luck is a triumph of nurture over nature. People’s personalities influence how they are treated by fate. It is often seen that spme people cope with all sorts of adversities and sail through problems and unhappy situations while others are shattered emotionally and physically in similar circumstances.

Psychologists believe that when confronted by a major problem, people fall into two types: internalists and externalists. The first type of people analyze, act and learn from the outcome. They see a connection between them and whatever happens to them. On the other hand externalists believe that they have no control over their fate. By doing so, they let.life wash over them. If they fall over, they just blame bad luck instead of trying to work out why they fell over and how to prevent it from happening again.

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

This becomes a vicious circle. The willingness of externalists to see the unseen hand of fate in everything makes them liable to more bad fortune. They see themselves as unlucky, remain as introverts and are convinced from the start that they would fail. They are more likely to drift into either a passive existence or less desirable kind of life. The internalists, on the other hand, take matters into their hands and tend to become high achievers. They make their own luck by taking more chances and meeting more people who might help them. They tend to be optimists, extroverts, and risk-takers. No wonder, Lady Luck pursues such people. (278 words).

We make our destiny. Our personalities determine how we deal with problems in life. Some people can cope with hardships better than others. Psychologists categorise people into internalists and externalists. The internalists learn something by analyzing the problem at hand. They know the relation between them and the outcome. Externalists do not think so as they blame their bad luck for everything. They slip into a vicious circle of pessimism. Taking control of difficult situations, high achievers make themselves’lucky’. (80 words)

IV. a. Read the following passage and complete the notes.

Recognised as the largest desert in the world, the Sahara Desert extends across north Africa, covering over three million square miles from the Atlantic coast to the Nile valley.

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

Research scientists believe that the land became a desert for three reasons. For centuries, wilderness tribes have wandered from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land for their herds of animals. These nomadic people have always considered the number of animals they have as a sign of wealth. The large herds have been allowed to roam freely and graze on desert plants and grass. Over time, enormous sections of land have been left exposed, causing soil erosion. Today, the Sahara Desert is expanding southward as these wandering tribes continue to allow their animals to overgraze.

In addition to allowing overgrazing, these people cut down whatever trees they find and use them for firewood. The sand is unable to hold on to the intense heat of the day, so nighttime temperatures often drop below freezing. Looking for warmth, the wild tribes stripped the desert of whatever hardy shrubs and stunted trees did grow. The land grew barren and very little vegetation remained.
Title: The Expanding Sahara.

I. Life of the nomads.

  • Wanderers
  • Wealth – animals

II. Reasons for desert

  • Overgrazing
  • Firewood
  • Soil erosion, due to cutting.

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

III. Other reasons for desertification

  • Extreme weather conditions.
  • For keeping warm at night, trees are cut and with subside used for firewood,

b. Read the following passage and write its summary.

India is a land of festivals. Each state has its own festivals apart from the common festivals, celebrated all over the country. Many of our festivals are harvest or spring festivals. The Basant Panchami celebrates the advent of the spring season. It is a joyous festival dedicated to Saraswathi, the goddess of learning, literature and arts. This festival comes on the fifth day of the month of May according to the Indian calendar. According to the Vedas, it is believed that the Goddess purifies our hearts and gives us knowledge. The Goddess blesses us with the capacity to appreciate beauty and truth and inspires us to write poetry, create art or anything of aesthetic value.

Ancient people worshipped all elements of nature, such as the sun, moon, rain, wind, rivers, trees, animals etc. The composers of the Vedas lived on the banks of a river, which came to be called Saraswathi. They worshipped the Goddess, who was the presiding deity of the river. Even today, on Basant Panchami day, the Goddess is worshipped with great devotion. People worship the deity by offering flowers.

2nd PUC English Streams Workbook Summarising

Festivals of India

India is a land of festivals. Common festivals are celebrated all over India. Many of our festivals are harvest or spring festivals. Basant Panchami is a spring festival which is dedicated to Goddess Saraswathi. Ancient people worshipped all elements of nature. The worshipped Goddess Saraswathi as the deity of the river. Today it is known as Basant Panchami.