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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers
Time : 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks : 100
Part – A
I. Answer the Following questions in one word or one sentence each : 10 x 1 = 10
What is Excavation?
Excavation is the scientific digging of earth for unearthing ancient buildings or artifact’s.
Which was the capital of Satavahanas?
Paithana dr Pratishthana.
Who was the Foreign traveller who visited the court of Amoghavarsha?
Arab traveller Sulaiman
Who shifted the capital from Delhi to Devagiri?
Who had the title “Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya?
Who built Madarasa at Bidar?
Mahmud Gawan built the Madarasa at Bidar.
Name the philosophy of Madhwa charya.
Dwaitha (dualism) philosophy.
Who was the Governor, who introduced the Subsidiary Alliance?
Who was the first Kannadiga who secured Bharata Ratna Award?
Sir. M. Visweshwaraiah
Which was the famous work of Aluru Venkata Rao?
Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions is 2 words or 2 sentences each: 10×2 = 20
Mention any two sites of the Paleolithic age.
Narmada and Tungabhadra valleys, Bhopal and Chota Nagpur area of MP, Madurai, Tanjavur, Trichinopoly and Arcot of Tamil Nadu, Nellore, Kurnool, Guntur, Chittoor, Cuddapah and Krishna of A.P., Raichur, Ghataprabha river basin in Belgaum, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa etc., are some of the sites.
Mention any two causes which brought an end of Indus Civilization.
Major causes for the decline of the Indus civilisation are,
- The conquest and destruction of their important cities by the powerful set of invaders (probably Aryans) declined the civilization.
- Natural calamities such as wildfires, floods or severe earthquakes might have resulted in the damage of the cities and ruined them. For example, Mohenjodaro was rebuilt more than 7 times
- Shifting of the monsoons and soil erosion made the people to desert the places. For want of fertile land, the people might have abandoned these places.
- Spread of epidemics must have wiped out the population.
- The rivers might have changed their course and ruined the cities. The drifting away of the rivers from the cities, might have rendered the place unfertile.
What is the importance of Maski edict?
Maski is located in Raichur District. This ediet which refers to ‘Devanampriya Ashokasa’ confirms that Ashoka had the titles ‘Devanampriya’ and ‘Priyadarshi Raja’.
Write any two measures of Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism.
- Kanishka gave royal patronage to Buddhism and it was also extended to the buddhist monks.
- A large number of missionaries were sent to foreign countries like Japan, Tibet and Central Asia for spreading Buddhism.
- Kanishka conducted the 4th buddhist council in Kashmir in 102 C.E.,presided by Vasumithra. The purpose of this council was to settle the disputes that were existing in Buddhism at that time.
When and between whom did the Battle of Takkolam take place?
The battle of Takkolam was fought between Cholas and Rastrakutas in 949 C.E.
Who were the parents of Harshavardhana?
Prabhakara Vardhana and Yashomathi.
Which were the two important taxes collected by Shivaji?
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi
Where is Gol Gumbaz and who built it?
Gol – Gumbaz is in Bijapur. It was built by Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah.
Name any two trading centres of Portuguese in India.
Goa (Capital), Diu, Daman, Salsette, Bassein, Bombay, Calicut, Cochin, Machalipattanam, Santhome etc., were the trading centers of the Portuguese in India.
Name any two Land Revenue Systems introduced by British in India.
- Zamindari system
- Ryotwari system
Name any two industries established by Mirza ismail.
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) Bangalore, Sugar Factory at Mandya, Match Factory at Shivamogga, Chemical and Fertilisers Factory at Belagola.
Mention any two members of the J.V.P. Committee.
In 1949 – Jawaharalal Nehru, Vallababhai Patel, and Pattabi Sitharamaiah were the members.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: 6 x 5 = 30
Explain the special features of Indian History.
India is the 7th largest country in area and the second-most populous country in the world. The special features of Indian history are:
(a) Continuity of civilization and culture: India has one of the earliest histories in the world. The physical features of our country, full of variety, richness and contrasts tend to divide India into different local zones. However, it has 4000 years of continuous history and continuity of civilization and culture, like China.
(b) Evolution in phases: It has developed in various stages with necessary improvements. We find a connecting link of events from the Indus to the Vedic period, Vedic to Islamic and Christian influences.
(c) Foreign invasions: The natural barriers on the frontiers of India provided security from foreign invasions. However, foreigners like Greeks, Persians, Huns, Shakas, Arabs, Turks, Kushans, Afghans and others entered India from the Khyber and Bolan passes. All these invaders contributed to the Indian culture. The historical monuments and other structures like Forts built by these invaders are attracting tourists even today. South India had immunity from such invasions and developed a . distinct culture of its own.
(d) Religious tolerance (Dominant and tolerant Hindu faith): India is home for Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs, Muslims, Parsis, Christians and several tribal faiths and practices. Indians believe in the concept of ‘Vasudhaivaka kutumbakam’ and ‘Sarve janaha sukhino bhavantu’, which means that the whole world is one family and let all the people be happy.
(e) Indian contributions to the world: India has contributed immensely in the fields of literature, philosophy, science, art, culture, architecture, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, etc., UNO has recognized more than 530 Indian historical sites as centers – of world heritage,.such as the Hillforts of Rajasthan, Khajuraho, Konark, Tajmahal, Bodh Gaya, Sanchi, Ajanta.
Ellora, Hampi, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Madurai, Kanchi, Churches of Goa, etc., Yoga, Ayurveda and other artistic specimens are the special contributions of Indians to the world. The great contributions of Indian mathematicians have enriched the world with the concept of zero and the decimal system. The ancient universities of Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, Prayag, Vikramshila, Kashi and Kanchi attracted students from different countries of the world. India was at the height of its intellectual and spiritual glory.
(f) Unity 7 in diversity: India possesses diverse physical and geographical features and also shows diversity racially, linguistically, socially, economically, religiously and almost in ever,’ sphere of human activities. Inspite of all these diversities, there . are many unifying forces that have kept India united.
Write the social condition of Aryans.
The early vedic people developed a highly organised society, that was based on the principle of monogamy. Polygamy was practiced only among the royal families. The eldest male member was the head of the family and was called ‘Kulapathi’ or ‘Grihapathi’. There was no system of child marriage but widow remarriage prevailed. Marriage was considered a sacred bond and after marriage the bride lived in the house of the bridegroom. Usually a joint family system prevailed among the Aryans.
The social divisions, chaturvarnas were based on professions. They were Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra. People could change professions and hence change their vamas. Thus, there was mobility among the varnas.
Position of the women:
The status of women in the family and in the society was high and they had equal rights with men. Women were educated and highly civilized for e.g.,: Gargi, Maithrevi, Apala, Ghosha, Vishwavara and others. Girls had considerable freedom in selecting their life partners. Women freely moved out of their houses and attended public functions. A high standard of morality was maintained.
Food and entertainment:
People consumed wheat, barley, rice, fruit, vegetables, fish and meat and intoxicating drinks like soma and sura. Aryans wore clothes made of cotton and wool. Ornaments were used by both men and women, made of gold, silver and flowers. Gambling, chariot and horse racing, hunting and dance were the popular entertainments. Education on the whole was oral. It aimed at the development of character and was religions in nature. During the later vedic period, polygamy and polyandry came into practice. Patriarchal system still continued, and the joint family system was quite common.
Women were still allowed to get higher education and participate in the religious rites. But the women were now under the protection of father or husband or a son. On the whole, position of the women had considerably come down. Varnas turned into many castes. Caste system became hereditary and very rigid. Brahmanas and Kshatriyas enjoyed a higher status compared to Vaishyas and Shudras. Life of an individual was divided into four stages called ashramas. They were Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa. Education was imparted by learned teachers to the students. The aim of education was to develop knowledge, character, truthfulness and devotion. Gurus enjoyed great respect. Living standard of the people was usually the same as it was in the early vedic civilization. People still lived in villages and small towns. Agriculture was the main profession of the people.
Explain the main features of Hoysala Architecture.
Hoysala art and architecture: Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysala style’ of architecture. The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysala temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.
The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples:
- Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha).’ This tower is in the form of a pyramid.
- Hoysala temples are constructed on a raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.
- Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.
- The temples have carved stone t windows with apertures and the
walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.
- The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.
- The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.
- The centre of the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the pillars, on the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.
- Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cells (kutas) e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.
Hoysala temple constructions: Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom. Vishnuvardhana built, Kirthinarayana temple at Talakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur,Mallikarjuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Bankapura.
Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-III (1173-1220 CE) built Amrutheshwara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu. Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli and Panchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.
The Channakeshava temple (1117 CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwara temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.
What were the causes and results of the battle of Talikote?
The decisive battle of Talikote was fought in 1565 C.E. between the Vijayanagara (Aliya Ramaraya) Rulers and the combined forces of Shahi Kingdoms on the Banks of river Krishna.
Causes for the Battle:
(a) Supremacy over the Doab region: The fertile doab area between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra became a bone of contention between the two powers and hence responsible for that battle.
(b) Religious difference: The religious and cultural differences between the Hindu Vijayanagara and the Muslim Shahi Kingdoms was one of the causes for the battle.
(c) Foreign policy of Aliya Ramaraya: Aliya Ramraya interfered in the internal disputes of the Shahis. He followed the policy of divide and rule with the Shahis of Bijapura and Ahmadnagar. The Shahis forgot their enmity and united through various alliances. The Sultans of the Deccan (Bijapura, Ahmadhagar, Golkonda, Bidar) realized that Ramaraya’s power had increased immensely due to the lack of unity among themselves. They decided to sink their differences and unite in the name of the religion against the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara.
(d) Immediate Cause: Ali Adil Shah of Bijapura demanded the return of Raichur. But Ramaraya refused and asked the Sultan to fight and win it in the battle field. This was the immediate cause for the battle.
(e) Course of the battle: Bahamani Sultans set aside their differences and organized a confederacy against Vijayanagara. The combined forces of Bidar. Bijapura, Ahamadnagar and Golkonda marched and crossed the river Krishna and camped at a place between the villages Rakkasagi and Tangadagi. Aliya Ramaraya decided to meet this challenge with all his might. Ramaraya personally led the army with his two brothers. The battle took place on 23rd January 1565 C.E.
In the beginning Vijayanagara forces gained upper hand. But during the course of the battle, Ramaraya was captured by the Shahi soldiers and beheaded and his head was paraded in the battle field. This created panic among the Vijayanagara soldiers. They ran away from the battle field. The Shahis won the battle. Venkatadri and Tirumala hurriedly went back to Vijayanagara, took as much wealth as they can cany and fled to Penugonda. This debacle led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Results of the battle:
- Vijayanagara empire lost its glory. The successful Shahi army looted the city of Vijayanagara.
- Aravidu dynasty continued under the name of Vijayanagara with its new capital at Penugonda in Andhra Pradesh.
- The Golkonda and Bijapur Sultans captured the northern territories. The feudatories of Vijayanagara like Nayakas and Palegars proclaimed themselves independent. This led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The destruction of the capital city and decline of the Vijayanagara Empire adversely affected the Portuguese trade in India.
Discuss the socio-religious reforms ol Basaveshwara.
Socio-religious reforms of Basavesh wara: Basaveshwara was a revolutionary reformer. He wanted to build a classless and casteless society. The first step to him was integration of the people on equal status, regardless of caste. He advocated equality of all human beings. He strongly , opposed blind beliefs, superstitions, image worship, ritualism, pilgrimage and taking holy bath in the river. He tried to wipe out the evil practice of untouchability and encouraged intercaste marriages.
He made it clear that caste system does not have the base of Dharmashastra. He encouraged interdining and gave lingadeeksha to the untouchable Nagadeva ‘ and accepted his hospitality. Encouraging inter caste marriage, he performed the marriage of Brahmin Madhuvaiah’s daughter with Harijan Haralaiah’s son. Orthodox people were disturbed by these revolutionary acts of Basaveshwara and ‘ gave a complaint to King Bijjala that he was spending the money from the treasury to benefit his followers and that he was spoiling Hinduism. Bijjala gave death sentence to Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah.
When the news of the death of Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah spread, Basaveshwara was upset and gave up his post as minister and went to Kudalasangama. This led to a revolt by his followers and in this revolt, Bijjala was murdered. Disapproving animal sacrifice, Basavesh wara said “Kindness is the source of religion” (Dayavedharmada moolavdiah). He gave the concept of ‘work is worship’. This was the main message of Basaveshwara to mankind. He tried to propagate purity, morality and humanistic approach through his vachanas. He rejected the idea of building temples. He questioned the need and purpose to build temples when our own body is a temple, where God resides. He felt that his body was the temple, his legs were its pillars and his head was its golden tower.
Discuss the struggle of Tippu Sultan with the British.
Anglo-Mysore wars (1767-1799):
The first Anglo-Mysore war (1767 1769) The British after establishing supremacy in Bengal, waged war agains Mysore to expand their Empire. Tippu has participated in his father’s campaigns a had gained sufficient military experience In 1766, he fought against the Paliagars o Balam. In 1767-1769, in the first Angle Mysore war, he took his army towaro Madras. Later, he helped his father captivity the forts of Tirupattur and Vaniyambadi. The second Anglo-Mysore war (1780-1784): Hyder Ali died in 1782. His son Tippu Sultan continued the war. Tippu defeated the British at Wandiwash in 1783, and marched against Mangalore and besieged the fort. Negotiations for peace started between Tippu and British through signing the treaty of Mangalore in 1784. and the second Anglo-Mysore war ended with that.
Third Anglo-Mysore war (1790-1792):
The third Anglo-Mysore war was again fought between Tippu Sultan and the British. Tippu’s rise caused fear and jealousy among the Britishers. Tippu was trying to get the help of the French to expel the British from India. War broke out with Tippu’s unprovoked attack on Travancore in 1789, whose ruler was an ally of the British. British Governor General, Lord Cornwallis was waiting for a pretext to wage a war against Tippu. He formed a coalition consisting of the British, the Nizam and the Marathas against Tippu, and attacked Sirangapattana. Tippu could not fight this combined army and he began to lose ground. They besieged his capital Srirangapattana in 1792. Forced by circumstances, Tippu signed the most humiliating treaty of Srirangapattana in March 1792.
Treaty of Srirangapattana in 1792 : The terms of the treaty were :
- Tippu had to surrender half of his Kingdom to the British and their allies.
- Tippu agreed to pay a war indemnity of 3.5 crores (30 lakh pounds) to the British. As he did not have enough money, he had to send two of his sons to the British as hostages.
Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1798-1799): Tippu could not reconcile to the defeat and humiliation in the third Anglo- Mysore war and was determined to drive out the British from India. He again started negotiations with France, Turkey, Kabul, Afghanistan etc. by sending his delegations but he could not get any help. Lord Wellesley forced him to sign the subsidiary Alliance, which he refused, As a result war became inevitable.
Lord Wellesley sent a powerful army along with the Marathas and Nizam. Tippu was defeated in the battle of Siddeshwara and Malavalli. On fourth May 1799, the British besieged the fort of Srirangapattana. The fort was bombarded and the enemy entered the fort. Tippu died fighting in the battle and the British captured Srirangapattana.
After the death of Tippu, his territories were divided among the British, the Marathas and the Nizam. A portion of his Kingdom was given to the Wodeyars of Mysore. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – III became the King of Mysore.
Explain the personality of Swami Vivekananda.
Swami Vivekananda: He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paiama hamsa. He studied both Indian and Western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influence of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
World religious conference at Chicago-31st may 1893: Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the world. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference” at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America.” This won over the hearts of the people. He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization, He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts, For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in the society. The Mission started several schools, hospitals, orphanages and old age Homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes, etc. Its branches have been established all over the world. Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the wido’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth’’.
Social and religious reforms: Vivekananda condemned the caste system, rituals ceremonies and superstitions. He stresses the need for social reforms. He preacher tolerance, equality and co-operation ammo the people of all faiths. He gave important to education, emancipation of women am eradication of poverty.
National Awakening: Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous was “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal I reached”. He wanted India to be a goer nation. He has been popularly called e the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedanth Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
What were the important factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
The important factors for the growth of Indian Nationalism were as listed below.
(a) Political Unity and Uniform Administration: The British conquered the whole of India and brought it under a single administration. This made the people of India unite psychologically. Now they faced many common problems and a common enemy. The concept that “We are all Indians” was created in the minds of the Indian people. The British imperialism gave India political unity.
(b) Impact of English Education: A wave of liberalism and individual freedom was passing through English politics and literature in the 19th century. The enlightened Indian: began to compare their existing conditions to that of Europe. By the study of English literature and history educated Indians were filled with the spirit of democracy and national patriotism. The English language was the language, of communication for the national leaders.
(c) Discrimination against Indians: The British considered themselves to be racially superior to Indians. They had the feeling that Indians were incapable and unworthy of trust. Therefore, they denied higher posts to Indians. The British officers often berated Indians as Kutthe (dogs) Niggers (blacks) and Suvars (pigs). The Queen’s proclamation in 1858 promised to Indians, that they would be appointed to higher posts on the basis of their merit, irrespective of their caste, religion or race, but this policy was never implemented. Indian culture and heritage were looked down upon by the British. This unjust policy created great discontent among the educated class.
(d) Role of Indian press and literature: The Indian press contributed a lot to the national awakening. Newspapers openly criticised the political policy of the British Government. Newspapers like the Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, The Kesari, Hindu. Patriot etc., greatly influenced the nationalist feelings. Many articles and poems inspiring nationalism were being published both in English and the vernacular languages.
Scholars like R. G. Bhandarkar, R. L. Mitra, Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, Max Muller,Monier Williams and others conducted researches and brought to light the glorious cultural past of India. The cultural heritage of India filled the nationalists with pride and self confidence. For e.g. writings of Ravindra Nath Tagore and the inspiring song ‘Vandemataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee stirred the hearts of Indians.
(e) The Economic Policy of the British: The British considered India to be only a colony which provided cheap raw materials and market for their finished goods. Their economic policy destroyed the economic structure that existed in India and the nation became poorer. The Indian cottage industries suffered severely. The economic deterioration of India was attributed to the British rule.
(f) Network of Communication: The British followed reactionary policies like divide and rule, subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, annexing States quoting misrule etc., to establish political supremacy over India. Indian Rulers and common people were discontent with the British policies.
The introduction of the telegraph network, postal and railways looked like efforts to chain the country. The nationalist movement spread very quickly throughout India. It made inter-provincial relations and exchange of thoughts possible. The national leaders visited every nook and comer of the country and made propaganda. Indian Nationalism is the offspring and outcome of the British rule. All the above factors directly or indirectly led to national awakening among Indians.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated 5 + 5 = 10
Question 31. (A)
Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explained note on each marked place in two sentences,
(b) Jallianwala Bagh
(a) Harappa: It is one of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montegomy district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayaram Sahan excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.
(b) Taxila (Takshashila): It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya (Chanuk’a) was a teacher in this University.
(c) Pataliputra: It is the capital of Bihar State. now called as Patna. which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empire, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
(d) Badami: The early name of Badami was Vatapi and it was the capital of the Chalukyas. It ¡s famous for rock cut cave temples. It is in bagalkote district of Karnataka.
(e) Kanchi (Kancitipuram): It is near Chennai ill Tamil Nadu. It was the capital of the Pahlavas. The city is famous for Shaia and Vaishanava temples. [lie famous Karnakshi teinole is located here.
(f) Halebeedu: its early name was Dwarasamudra and it as the capital the Hovsalas. The Hosa Ieshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are here. It is in Hassan district of Karn a taka.
(g) Delhi: It is present the capital of India. located on the banks of River Jamuna, it was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals.Man monuments like Qutub Minar.Red Fort. Jama Masjid etc., are located here.
(h) Devagiri: It is in Maharashira. Alla tid-din-Khiji led many expeditions on Desagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughiak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.
(e) Panipat: it is in Harana state, it was a great battlefield in the history of India s%here three great battles were fought.
(j) Agra: It is situated on the banks of River Jamona in V.P. It was founded by Sikandar Iodhi, It became the capital of Akbar. TajMahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
(k) Hampi: It is situated on the banks of River Tungabhadra (Bel larv). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupakslia temple.Vila) avittala swarny temple, Stonechariot etc., are the noteworthy monuments here.
(I) Bidar: It was the capital city of the Bahamani Kingdom. Here Maharnud Gaaii built a Madarasa.
(m) Bijapura (Vijapura): It was the capital of Adil Shah is. Monuments like Golgumbaz, Ibrahirn Roza. Asar Mahal, Barakaman, etc. are found here.
(n) Calcutta: It is the capital of West Bengal. situated oi the banks of River Hooghli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
(o) Bombay: It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was tite main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.
(p) Pondicherry: It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandel Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
(q) Srirangapattana: It is located on the banks of river Cauverv and is in the Mandya district. It was the capital of the early Wodeyars of Mysore, Hyder All and lippu Sultan. The town contains many historical monuments like the Fort, Dana 1)aulat palace,Lalbag, Tombs of Hyder and Tippu, Ranganatha Temple. etc.
(r) Meerut: It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857.
(s) Jalian Walabagh: It is located iii the city ofArnritsar in Panjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed people who were protesting against the Rowlatt Acton 13th April 1919.
(t) Dandi: Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected water and made sail and deliberately violated the salt law.
(for Visually Challenged Student only)
Question 31. (B)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: 1 x 10 = 10
(i) Describe the achievements of Akbar.
(a) Military achievements of Akbar:
(i) The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the Chief Minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.
(ii) Conquest of Malwa: He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior and Jaunpur effortlessly, because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.
(iii) Conquest of Gondwana: In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son ’Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empine.
(iv) Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567: Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. But Udaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were killed in the battle and Chittor was occupied by theMughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh (Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.
(v) Conquest of Gujarat in 1572: The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.
(vi) Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir: Ranathambore from Roy Surjenhara, and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.
(vii) Extent of the Kingdom: The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.
(viii) Conquest of Deccan: Akbar turner 1 his attention towards Deccan in 1606 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh. Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda; were creating troubles for him. Hi sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdu Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.
(b) Religious policy of Akbar: Akbar was liberal minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus. He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.
Akbar founded a new religion Din-i- Ilahi in 1581.
It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions. Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i- Ilahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.
(c) Administration: Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state. The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the Council of Ministers. The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Ali, Mir Bakshi, Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i- Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister. Kingdom was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘ Subedar’. Province was divided into Sarkars, Paraganas and Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.
(d) Mansabdari system: Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status and salary etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a mansabdar incharge of 10, to a mansabdar controlling 10,000. The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers.
The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, They were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.
(e) Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System): Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. Raja Todarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust ’. The state maintained the documents, Patta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regarding the land, onwnership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.
(f) Literature, Art and Architecture: Akbar was a patron of literature. Abdul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer. The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharvaveda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi, etc. were translated from Sanskrit to Persion. Some popular Hindi scholars wereTulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were -Abdul Rahim, Abul Fazal, Birbal, Faizi, Hamid Human, Raja Mansingh, Shaikh Mubarak, Tansen, Raja Todarmal.
Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘Humayun Tomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Ba Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar an Fathepur Sikri. The massive 176 f Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza is the highest Gateway of India. RedFort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan – i – Khas, housi of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts ; Akbar.
(ii) Given an explanation about impact of British rule on Indian Economy.
Economic Impact: Land revenue was the main source of income to the Government. The British had incurred huge expenditure on administration, maintenance of army and waging many wars. To make up the burden of expenditure, they introduced some new systems of revenue collection in different provinces in India. They were
(a) Zamindari system (or) Permanent land revenue settlement:
Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system in 1793 in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and U.P. According to this system, the East India Company entered into an agreement with the Zamindars. The Zamindars were given permanent ownership of Land, which they cultivated with the help of tenants. Out of the total revenue collected, the Zamindars had to pay regularly the land revenue at 89%.
Merits and demerits of the Zamindari system:
- The company was assured of a regular and fixed income.
- In due course the Zamindars became a strong political force and the Company secured the loyalty of the Zamindars to support its colonalism.
- Zamiridars exploited the peasants by collecting high rates of revenue.
- Zamindars led a life of comfort in cities. There came into being agents in between the landlords and the tenants.
(b) Ryotwari or Munro system: This system was introduced by Governor Sir Thomas Munro in the Bombay and Madras presidencies in 1820 C.E. Ryotwari system established direct settlement between the Company and the cultivator. The peasant (Ryot) was recognized as the owner of land on the condition, that he paid the land revenue regularly.
The land revenue fixed was about 50% the value of the yield. It was fixed on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crops grown. The land revenue was fixed not on a permanent basis, but was revised periodically every 20 to 30 years. Under this system,
- The farmers were exploited by the Company because the land revenue assessment was very high.
- The cultivator had to pay revenue even when his produce was destroyed by drought or floods.
- The farmers had to take loans from moneylenders to pay the land revenue. It they failed to pay the land tax, farmers forfeited ownership of their land.
(c) Mahalwari system:
- This system was introduced by Lord William Bentinck in North – western India and the central parts of India in 1828 C.E.
- The Company entered into settlements with the Estate or Mahal (village). The farmers within the village were collectively considered to be the owners of the land and were also collectively responsible for the payment of land revenue.
- Mahalwari was a mixture of both Zamindari and Ryotwari systems.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: 2 x 10 = 20
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
Life or Cautlima Buddha: Gauthama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. Fie was the sou of a shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mavadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his step mother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha. He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula, According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa. he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an oldman, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage). resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world, He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is knoss has The Great Renunciation”.
To find a solution to the problems of old age. sickness, and death. he keft his home, went out to Urasela forest near Gava and spent six year wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation as not the way to luid the truth. Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipai tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Has ing recessed the light. Ciauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
Gauthama as a preacher: After attaining knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. in the deer park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted fisc disciples into Buddhism. This is kiiossn as the dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharnia). Dharnia ehakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, fraselling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara (U.P.). at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as ‘The light of Asia”. His birth day (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima’
Teachings of Buddha: Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas. superiority of Hrahmis. meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the creator of the Liker or God. Buddha (aught his preaching through conversation, lectures and parables His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces derivd. desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses. to be born again and again in order to satisily the desires. Thus. he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped. if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Arvasatyas’. which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery) which could be removed only by the remost of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow).
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow ).
- To destroy misery. desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow).
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace and enjoy eternal bliss.
Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path other midde path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
This path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out the complete)3 self indulgence arid self nitrification. Buddhist teachings Constitution the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep more. not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals. Nirvana is the tinal result of the end of all desires.
Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He given importance to non-violence. The did not refer to (led. Buddha. Dharma and Sangha arc the three gems of Buddhism.
Why is Gupta age called “The Golden Age” in the Indian History?
Introduction: Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age’ and the Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of August us Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Bamet compared it with the age of Perleles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary
Religion: Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular. Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Maiiakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta rulers performed vadic rites and sacrifices.
Samudragupta and Chandragupta-II, were worshippers of Vishnu. They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagaatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). image worship. rites and ceremon les became very common. The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vjapeya and Rajasuya yagas were performed with all splendour Buddhism also enjoyed a great popularity during the Gupta age. The buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Kane belong to the Gupta period. Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted Into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education: Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxila, Nalanda,Ajantha and Saranatha were well known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were the great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology and Science.
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramadhitya-II) partitioned the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court. Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Maiavikagnimithra. Vikramorvashiya,Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa. Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta.. Rithusamhara, etc. Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”. Other important writer and their.
works: Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika,Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi -Kavyadhara. Vishnusimha -Panchatantra.Amarasimha- Amarakosa. Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam acharithe, Charaka-Charakasamhìthe, Shanku – Shilpashastra. Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra. Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra and others. The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
Development of science: The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology. Mathematics, Medicine and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works-Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha, He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science. Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and nathcmatician, who wrote the book Brahmaputra siddhantha.
He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraba. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu. He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain. sun etc., all these hundreds of years.
Art and Architecture: The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura. Benaras, Pataliputra. Udayagiri.
Devgarh etc were the centres of their artistic activities. The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP). has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated. Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivaling were also carved during this period.
The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example. the Shiva temple at Khumara, the Vishnu temple at Tigwa. the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi etc.. follow this design.
Painting: In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of ‘Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no.1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian ail’.
Describe the achievements of Alla- Uddin Khilji.
(a) Kingship (Sultan): Allauddin followed an independent policy regarding political matters. He was a strong and efficient ruler. He set up a strong central administration. He was the supreme authority in the state and combined civil and military talents in remarkable measures. He did not permit the interference of religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine origin of Kingsh ip and cherished the ideas that the King was the representative of God (Shadow of God). He once said “I issue orders as I conceive to be, for the good of the state and benefit of the people”.
(b) Espionage: He established a spy network, to get information regarding the activities of all the nobles of his court. He also tried to prevent outbreak of rebellions within the Empire and formation of any conspiracy against him. He deprived the nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the Nobles, even in their houses.
(c) Prohibition of drinking: He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs in Delhi and drastic punishment was meted out to those who were guilty of violation. He knew that gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.
(d) Military reforms: The standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal order and prevented the invasion of the Mongols. He personally supervised the activities of the soldiers and paid them salaries regularly. The state maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system. Ariz – i – Mumalik was the incharge for the appointment of soldiers.
(e) Revenue reforms:
- Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land, for the assessment of land revenue.
- He imposed heavy taxes on the Sardars, Jagirdars and Ulemas.
- He imposed Jazia, pilgrim, octroi and other taxes on non – Muslims.
- He appointed a special officer called “Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants.
- In order to check bribery and corruption among revenue officials and to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials, their salaries were increased.
(f) Market regulation: The most remarkable of all these, was an attempt to control the market, by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all articles of common use were fixed. A separate department and officers were appointed to regulate the market prices of commodities on a daily basis.
Evaluation of Allauddin: He is renowned not only for his conquests, but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. He established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, and capacity for; work, his unbounded courage temperature with calculation and penetrating Comoran sense stand out.
Explain the causes and results of the first war of Indian Independence.
Introduction: The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against the British rule. This w’as the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company. The spark of patriotism was kindled in a millitary unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the
nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.
Causes for the revolt:
(a) Political causes: The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the pol icy of divide and rule. Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.
(b) Administrative causes: The British introduced a new system of administration which replaced the traditional system. The introduction of‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus and Muslims. Indians were not given higher posts in the administration, and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.
(c) Economic causes: Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India ecomonically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods. Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot. Indian goods could not be sold in England ‘ due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to money lenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India ’ became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation”.
(d) Social causes: Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, ’ purdah, animal sacrifices etc., caused a lot of unrest among the orthodox people. The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain r the country and were clear signs of westernization. The British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them. They were rude and – arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.
(e) Religious causes: The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Chritian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions. Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced inter marriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.
(f) Military causes: Indian solidiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also. Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani). The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.
(g) Immediate causes: The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions. Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced inter marriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian sepoys felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.
Results of the revolt :
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far reaching results. They are :
(a) End of the Company rule: The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
(b) The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858:
Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord Canning announced it on 1st November 1858). Indians were promised that their rights, self¬respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.
(c) Reorganization of the Army: The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.
(d) Unity among Indians: The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.
(e) Source of Inspiration : The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.
Part – F
VI . Match the following :
1. Krishna I – Karnataka Kesari
2. Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan – Aihole Inscription
3. Gangadhara Rao Deshpande – Kailasanatha Temple
4. Ravikeerthi – Navakoti Narayana
5. Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar – Aligarh Movement
- – Kailasanatha Temple
- – Aligarh Movement
- – Karnataka Kesari
- – Aihole Inscription
- – Navakoti Narayana
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order.
(b) Arrival of Aryans to India
(c) Non-co-operation Movement
(d) Establishment of Vijayanagara Empire
(b) Arrival of Aryans to India
(d) Establishment of Vijayanagara Empire
(e) Brahmo Samaja
(c) Non-co-operation Movement