2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 4 with Answers

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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 4 with Answers

Time : 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100

Part – A

I. Answer the following in one word or one sentence each: 10 x 1 = 10

Question 1.
What is Numismatics?
The study of coins is called Numismatics.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of the word Mohenjadaro?
In Sindhi language, Mohenjodaro means ‘mound of the dead’.

Question 3.
What is meant by Veda?
Veda means knowledge.

Question 4.
Which was the first Kannada inscription?
Halmidi (Hassan Dist.) was the first Kannada inscription.

Question 5.
What is meant by “Chauth”?
The neighbouring areas of Shivaji’s Kingdom which were not under the direct rule of Shivaji were to give 1/4 of their land revenue collection to him. This was known as ‘Chauth’.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 4

Question 6.
Who influenced Kanishka to embrace Buddhism?
Ashwaghosha influenced Kanishka to embrace Buddhism.

Question 7.
Name the philosophy of s Madhwacharya.
Dwaitha was the Philosophy of Madhwacharya.

Question 8.
Which was the first capital of British in India?

Question 9.
In which year was the Battle of Buxar fought?
In 1764.

Question 10.
Where was a branch of the Home Rule League established in Karnataka?
A branch of the Home Rule League was established in Karnataka at Dharwad in 1916.

Part – B

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: 10 x 2 = 20

Question 11.
Name any five universities of ancient India.
The Nalanda and Takshashila were two Universities of ancient India.

Question 12.
What is the meaning of the term “Paleolithic”?
The word Paleolithic is derived from the Greek words Paleo (old) and lithic (stone). This refers to the old stone Age.

Question 13.
Name the two sects of Buddhism.
Hinayana and Mahayana.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Question 14.
Who erected the Gommateshwara statue and where?
The Ganga Minister Chavundaraya at Shravanabelagola.

Question 15.
Mention any two titles of Rajendra Chola I.
Pandita Chola, Gangaikonda Chola, Kedarakonda Deva etc.

Question 16.
Who built the Kailasanatha Temple? Where it was built?
Rashtrakuta King Krishna-1 built it at Ellora.

Question 17.
Who was Shivappa INavaka and why was he famous?
Shivappa Nayaka was a ruler of Keladi. He was famous for his Land Revenue scheme, called ‘Shivappa Nayaka‘s Sistif.

Question 18.
Which were the two important taxes collected by Shivaji?
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the two taxes collected by Shivaji.

Question 19.
Who founded Anubhava Mantapa and where?
Basaveshwara at Katyana (Bidar Dist).

Question 20.
Between whom was the battle of Plassey fought?
Shiraj-ud-Daula (Bengal) and Robert Clive (British) in 1757 C.E.

Question 21.
What is Ryotwari system?
The East India Company made a direct settlement with the cultivators. The ownership of land was given to Ryots on the condition that they had to pay a fixed revenue to the company.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Question 22.
Which Congress session declared “Poorna Swaraj” as its aim? When was it held?
Lahore Congress Session presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru declared complete Independence as its aim, in 1929.

Part – C

III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15 words or 20 sentences each: 6 x 5 = 30

Question 23.
Unity in Diversity is the unique feature of Indian History. Explain.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different climatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we see unity in diversity.


(a) Geographical diversity: India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajasthan) rainfall areas etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.

(b) Racial and linguistic diversities: People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.

(c) Social and religious diversity: India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Monogamy, polygamy and polyandry are also practiced. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable subsects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.

(d) Economic and Political diversities: The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand, certain areas are very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modern compared to the rural sectors.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united. Important among them are the following ones:

(a) Geographical unity: India has well defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below, surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.

(b) Administrative unity: The administrative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi. Mauryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls, etc. have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unify in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.

(c) Uniformity of education and literature: Sanskrit, the divine language, Vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country. Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite culture evolved during Muslim and British rule. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.

(d) Religious and social ceremonies: India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.

Recent changes: Indian Constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization, etc.have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people

Question 24.
State the social and economic conditions of the Indus people.
Social conditions:

(a) Race: Experts are of the opinion, that the Indus people belonged to a mixed (admixtured) race of Proto- austroloids, Alpines, Mediterraneans and Mongoloids. Some other scholars believed, that Dravidians founded the Indus culture.

(b) Social divisions (classes): There was no caste system then. With the help of the excavations, historians have come to the conclusion that there was a fourfold division of the society based on occupations. They were probably, as follows. The first class was made up of priests, physicians, astrologers etc., the second that of warriors, the third class consisted of traders and various artisans and the fourth one comprising of manual labourers and agriculturists who were the majority.

(c) Dresses and ornaments: Both men and women used cotton and woollen threads as fabrics. Men wore an upper garment like shawl or cloak and their lower garment was dhoti. Women used skirts and a garment to cover their upper body and a kind of fan shaped head-dress . They were conscious about their physical appearance. Women used cosmetics like face powder, lipsticks, eye ointment and accessories like mirrors, combs and hairpins.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Ornaments: Ornaments were worn by men and women, like necklaces, anklets, girdles, armlets and finger rings. Women alone used girdles, nose studs, ear studs, anklets etc. Rich amongst them used gold, silver, ivory and semi-precious stone ornaments and the poor used shell, bone and copper ornaments.

(d) Household articles: Highly sophisticated household articles were found at the Indus sites. They had used mud to make domestic vessels of different shapes and sizes, stands and storage jars. Vessels of copper, bronze, silver and porcelain were also used and they knew how to make them. Toilet jars made of ivory, metal, pottery and stones have been discovered at Harappa.

(e) Food articles: Indus people consumed wheat, barley, rice, other grains, vegetables, fruits and milk. Animal produce like beef, mutton, pork, fresh and dried fish etc., were also consumed.

(f) Amusements: The people had great love for indoor and outdoor games. Dice, balls, hunting, animal and bird fight were their entertainment games. Toys were made of terracotta consisting of rattles, whistles, carts, birds and figures of men and women. Chanhudaro was a centre for toy products.

Weapons: Excavations have brought to light, weapons such as slings, maces, daggers, spears, bows arid arrows. No piece of iron has been discovered there and only weapons of defence have been found. Therefore, scholars hold the view, that Indus people were peace-loving people.

Economic conditions:

(a) Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. In those days, the Indus basin must have been much more fertile and received more rain. They produced wheat, barley, peas, sesame, mustard, rice, fruits and vegetables.

(b) Domestication of animals: The Indus people had domesticated a number of animals. They were cow, oxen, sheep, goat, dog, pig, cat, elephant, camel, buffaloe, humped bull etc. They reared a fine breed of cattle, both for milk and meat purposes.

(c) Industries: At both Mohenjodaro and Harappa, several industries including home-spun cloth were developed. There were professionals like potters, carpenters, jewellers, ivory workers, gold smiths, weavers, blacksmiths and dyers. Chanhudaro became a great centre for pottery and terracotta toys. They produced artistically made stone beads.

(d) Trade and commerce: Indus people had developed internal and external trade. External trade was with many countries of Western Asia, Egypt Persia, Sumeria. Baluchistan, etc. They used bullock carts as a means of transport to carry goods. Harappa, Lothal, Rupar, Kalibangan, Surkotada and Chanhudaro were the main centers of trade. They carried on their trading activities through a barter system. They also had knowledge of the decimal system.

The dockyard at Lothal (Gurajat) shows, that they carried on external trade through ships. They exported ivory, gold, beads, timber etc, and imported precious stones, copper and tin. The uniform seals and a regular system of weights and measures have helped commercial transactions. Weight ratios were 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 160, 200, 320 and 640. Measurement of the linear scale used was 13.2 inches.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Question 25.
Explain the conquests of Samudragupta.
Samudragupta (335 to 375 CE): The most outstanding ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta, who was the ’ son and successor of Chandragupta-I. He was an ambitious, ablest and most distinguished ruler and wanted to be an ‘Emperor’ (Chakravarthi).

The Allahabad pillar inscription (Prayag) throws much light on his conquests and personal qualities. The author of this edict was Harisena, the court poet as well as the commander-in-chief of Samudragupta. It is in Sanskrit prose and verse and contains 33 lines. The inscription is in the nature of a prasasti (ponegric). The military conquests mentioned in the inscription may be divided into four distinct campaigns.

(a) Northern campaign (Aryavartha): The early years of his reign were spent in subduing the provinces of the Gangetic plain called ‘Aryavartha’. According to the inscription, he defeated nine Kings in his northern campaign and annexed their territories into his Empire. The Rulers who were defeated by Samudragupta were

  • Nandin
  • Balavarman
  • Chandravarman
  • Nagadatta
  • Nagasena
  • Ganapathinaga
  • Achyutanaga
  • Mathila and
  • Rudradeva.

After the conquest, he performed Ashwamedha yaga and became the master of Aryavartha.

(b) Conquest of the Forest Kingdoms (Central India):
Samudragupta conquered the forest. Kingdoms of Abhiras, Madrakas, Kakas, Reva, Jabalpur, Nagapur and Bhaghelkhanda in the upper Vindya regions, many of whom surrendered to him voluntarily.

(c) Southern Campaign: After consolidating his authority in the north, he turned his attention towards the South and took an expedition. Samudragupta derived his name and fame by his compaigns in South India and he did not extend his direct rule over this region. The inscription refers to the twelve Kings of the south who were defeated and later reinstated to rule under him. They were

  • Mahendra of Kosala.
  • Vyagraraja of Mahaknathara,
  • Mantaraja of Kowrala.
  • Mahendra of Pistapura.
  • Swamydatta of Kottura
  • Damana of Yarandapalli
  • Vishnugopa of Kanchi
  • Hasthivarman of Vengi
  • Neelaraja of Avamuktha
  • Ugrasena of Palakkad
  • Kubera of Devarashtra and
  • Dhananjaya ofKustalapura.

The southern states were far away from his capital Pataliputra, and so they could not be brought under his direct control. The defeated rulers accepted his sovereignty and paid him tributes. No territory was annexed.

(d) Annexation of the frontier Kingdoms: The frontier area also came under the control of Samudragupta. They accepted his authority and paid tributes to him. They were Kamarupa (Assam), Samataka (Bengal), Karthripura (Punjab), Devaka (Nepal) and Rohilkhanda.

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(e) Extended the Kingdom: Samudragupta’s Empire had extended from Bengal in the east to Punjab in the west, Himalayas in the north and upto the Vindya mountains in the south. The fame of Samudragupta reached far and wide. He maintained friendly relations with Ceylon. He was triumphant everywhere in India. Hence Dr. V.A. Smith the historian has called him as the ‘The Indian Napolean’. After his conquests, he performed ‘ Ashwameda yaga’ (horse sacrifice) to commemorate his victories. He also issued gold coins of various denominations. He composed many poems and thereby earned the title ‘Kaviraja’.

Question 26.
Explain the village administration of the Cholas.
Village (local self) Administration :

An important feature of the Chola administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages. Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables. It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.

Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka -1, gives us detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were 1. Ur or Urar (kuri) and 2. The Mahasabha. According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected for a period of one year.

The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system. Villagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw. The names of the candidates were wrritten on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.

Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘Variyams’. The representatives were called ‘Variya PerumakkaT. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.

Duties of the committees: The village committees performed duties like the. protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves and forests etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.

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Minimum qualifications of members :

The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.

Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:

  • The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land,
  • He should reside in his own house built on his own site
  • Candidate should be more than 35 years old and less than 70 years of age.
  • Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas and Commerce.
  • Candidate should possess a good character.

Disqualifications of members:

  • A member was disqualified for reelection if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
  • Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
  • Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.

This way, certain minimum qualifications and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.

Question 27.
Why is Mohammad Bin Thuqlaq called as “A mixture of Opposites”?
Administrative experiments of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:

(a) Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the Ganga and Yamuna (Doab) rivers being a very fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state, Mohammad – bin – Tughalak decided to increase the taxes there. But he enforced the tax raise at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of additional taxation. Revenue collection was also strict, which the farmers were unable to pay. This measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.

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(b) Transfer of capital in 1327 C.E.: Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objective was to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. Also, Devagiri occupied a central position in India and it was equidistant to Delhi and the other important cities of his Kingdom. He desired to shift the entire Delhi population along with his court. Barani says that “Not a cat or a dog was left”. Causes for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.

The tiresome journey passing through the dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by dacoits, hunger, mental agony etc., resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan having atlast realised his folly, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire incident made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool, operation – Daulatabad was a “Monument of misdirected energy”. This scheme also failed on account of the Sultan’s unplanned method of forcing it on his people.

(c) Circulation of token currency in 1329 C.E.: Mohammad-bin- Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief to the Doab people famine, transfer of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency in circulation, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass. Tanka was the token currency and its value was made equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as a monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as the ‘Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert. The Sultan did not take precautionary measures to the minting of the coins.

People started minting their own coins. Hence, the empire was flooded with thousands of counterfeit copper coins. People paid their taxes with these counterfeit coins. Copper coins lost their value as a medium of exchange. Trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his error in judgment and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 C.E. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. When everybody was there to exchange their copper coins with silver and gold coins, the treasury became empty. Mohammad – bin-Tughalakwas an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history.

He lacked practical judgment and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice, without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was a ‘mixture of opposites”. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks that, “Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions”. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant were ill-planned and badly executed.

Question 28.
What were the causes and the results of the Battle of Talikote?
The decisive battle of Talikote was fought in 1565 C.E. between the Vijayanagara (Aliya Ramaraya) Rulers and the combined forces of Shahi Kingdoms on the Banks of river Krishna.

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Causes for the Battle:

(a) Supremacy over the Doab region: The fertile doab area between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra became a bone of contention between the two powers and hence responsible for that battle.

(b) Religious difference: The religious and cultural differences between the Hindu Vijayanagara and the Muslim Shahi Kingdoms was one of the causes for the battle.

(c) Foreign policy of Aliya Ramaraya: Aliya Ramraya interfered in the internal disputes of the Shahis. He followed the policy of divide and rule with the Shahis of Bijapura and Ahmadnagar. The Shahis forgot their enmity and united through various alliances. The Sultans of the Deccan (Bijapura, Ahmadhagar, Golkonda, Bidar) realized that Ramaraya’s power had increased immensely due to the lack of unity among themselves. They decided to sink their differences and unite in the name of the religion against the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara.

(d) Immediate Cause: Ali Adil Shah of Bijapura demanded the return of Raichur. But Ramaraya refused and asked the Sultan to fight and win it in the battle field. This was the immediate cause for the battle.

(e) Course of the battle: Bahamani Sultans set aside their differences and organized a confederacy against Vijayanagara. The combined forces of Bidar. Bijapura, Ahamadnagar and Golkonda marched and crossed the river Krishna and camped at a place between the villages Rakkasagi and Tangadagi. Aliya Ramaraya decided to meet this challenge with all his might. Ramaraya personally led the army with his two brothers.

The battle took place on 23rd January 1565 C.E. In the beginning Vijayanagara forces gained upper hand. But during the course of the battle, Ramaraya was captured by the Shahi soldiers and beheaded and his head was paraded in the battle field. This created panic among the Vijayanagara soldiers. They ran away from the battle field. The Shahis won the battle. Venkatadri and Tirumala hurriedly went back to Vijayanagara, took as much wealth as they can cany and fled to Penugonda. This debacle led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Results of the battle:

  • Vijayanagara empire lost its glory. The successful Shahi army looted the city of Vijayanagara.
  • Aravidu dynasty continued under the name of Vijayanagara with its new capital at Penugonda in Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Golkonda and Bijapur Sultans captured the northern territories. The feudatories of Vijayanagara like Nayakas and Palegars proclaimed themselves independent. This led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • The destruction of the capital city and decline of the Vijayanagara Empire adversely affected the Portuguese trade in India.

Question 29.
Write a note on the course of the First war of Indian Independence.
Course of the war (Revolt):

(a) Mangal Pandey: The revolt broke out in 34th infantry at Barrackpur (Bengal) on 29th March 1857. The Indian soldiers of Barrackpur refused to use the new cartridges and one of them, Mangal Pandey killed the British sergeant who forced them. This was the first shot of the revolt, but he was arrested and hanged. Mangal Pandey became the first martyr of the revolt.

(b) Meerut Military: The Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to use the cartridges. They were tried and sentenced to long term imprison¬ments. Other soldiers broke out in open rebellion (10th May 1857). They attacked the jail, released their fellow soldiers and the British officers were killed and their houses were burnt. ‘Maro Phirangiko’ was their slogan.

(c) Delhi (Bahadur Shah-II): The soldiers marched from Meerut to Delhi on 11th May 1857 and brought it under their control. The dethroned Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah-II was proclaimed as the ‘Emperor of India’. They hoisted the flag of independence on the Red Fort. The loss of Delhi dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the British Empire. Finally, in September 1857, Delhi was recaptured by the British. Bahadur Shah – II was arrested and deported to Rangoon.

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(d) Revolt in Lucknow: In June 1857, Begum Hazrath Mahal declared her son Wajid Aii as the Nawab of Oudh, but this proposal was rejected by the British. So, she rebelled against them at Lucknow. The British attacked Lucknow and captured it and she fled to Nepal.

(e) Kanpur incident: On 5th June 1857, Nana Saheb revolted against the British and captured Kanpur and declared himself as Peshwa. Nana Saheb was assisted by Tantia Tope. But the British (General Flavelock) were successful in recapturing Kanpur (17th June 1857). Nana Saheb fled to Nepal.

(f) Revolt in Jhansi: Protesting against the policy of Doctrine of Lapse, Rani Laxmi Bai the Queen of Jhansi who was driven out of Jhansi, along with Tantia Tope revolted and captured Gwalior. When the British came to recapture Gwalior under Hugh Rose, she fought heroically and died on the battle field on 17th June 1858.

Spread of the Revolt: The news of the revolt at Delhi spread throughout northern and central India, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bihar, Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagadhishpur, Jhansi and other parts of the country. Many Rulers remained loyal to the British government, but their soldiers revolted, and people started supporting the rebels.

Question 30.
What were the important factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
The important factors for the growth of Indian Nationalism were as, listed below.

(a) Political Unity and Uniform Administration: The British conquered the whole of India and brought it under a single administration. This made the people of India unite psychologically. Now they faced many common problems and a common enemy. The concept tha1 “We are all Indians” was created in the minds of the Indian people. The British imperialism gave India political unity.

(b) Impact of English Education: A wave of liberalism and individual freedom was passing through English politics and literature in the 19th century. The enlightened Indians began to compare their existing conditions to that of Europe. By the study of English literature and history, educated Indians were filled with the spirit of democracy and national patriotism. The English language was the language of communication for the national leaders.

(c) Discrimination against Indians: The British considered themselves to be racially superior to Indians. They had the feeling that Indians were incapable and unworthy of trust. Therefore, they denied higher posts to Indians. The British officers often berated Indians as Kutthe (dogs) Niggers (blacks) and Suvars (pigs). The Queen’s proclamation in 1858 promised to Indians, that they would be appointed to higher posts on the basis of their merit, irrespective of their caste, religion or race, but this policy was never implemented. Indian culture and heritage were looked down upon by the British. This unjust policy created great discontent among the educated class.

(d) Role of Indian press and literature: The Indian press contributed a lot to the national awakening. Newspapers openly criticised the political policy of the British Government. Newspapers like the Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, The Kesari, Hindu, Patriot etc., greatly influenced the nationalist feelings. Many articles and poems inspiring nationalism were being published both in English and the vernacular languages.

Scholars like R. G. Bhandarkar, R. L. Mitra, Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, Max Muller, Monier Williams and others conducted researches and brought to light the glorious cultural past of India. The cultural heritage of India filled the nationalists with pride and self confidence. For e.g. writings of Ravindra Nath Tagore and the inspiring song ‘Vandemataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee stirred the hearts of Indians.

(e) The Economic Policy of the British: The British considered India to be only a colony which provided cheap raw materials and market for their finished goods. Their economic policy destroyed the economic structure that existed in India and the nation became poorer. The Indian cottage industries suffered severely. The economic deterioration of India was attributed to the British rule.

(f) Network of Communication : The British followed reactionary policies like divide and rule, subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, annexing States quoting misrule etc., to establish political supremacy over India. Indian Rulers and common people were discontent with the British policies.

The introduction of the telegraph network, postal and railways looked like efforts to chain the country. The nationalist movement spread very quickly throughout India. It made inter-provincial relations’ and exchange of thoughts possible. The national leaders visited every nook and corner of the country and made propaganda. Indian Nationalism is the offspring and outcome of the British rule. All the above factors directly or indirectly led to national awakening among Indians.

Part – D

IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. 5 + 5 = 10

Question 31. (A)
Mark any 5 of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add ah explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences:
(a) Pataliputra
(b) Kanchi
(c) Hale – beedu
(d) Panipat
(e) Bidar
(f) Calcutta
(g) Bombay
(h) Jalian Walabagh.
(a) Pataliputra: It is the capital of Bihar State. now called as Patna. which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empire, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.

(b) Kanchi (Kancitipuram): It is near Chennai ill Tamil Nadu. It was the capital of the Pahlavas. The city is famous for Shaia and Vaishanava temples. [lie famous Karnakshi teinole is located here.

(c) Halebeedu: its early name was Dwarasamudra and it as the capital the Hovsalas. The Hosa Ieshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are here. It is in Hassan district of Karn a taka.

(d) Panipat: it is in Harana state, it was a great battlefield in the history of India s%here three great battles were fought.

(e) Bidar: It was the capital city of the Bahamani Kingdom. Here Maharnud Gaaii built a Madarasa.

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(f) Calcutta: It is the capital of West Bengal. situated oi the banks of River Hooghli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.

(g) Bombay: It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was the main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.

(f) Jalian Walabagh: It is located iii the city ofArnritsar in Panjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed people who were protesting against the Rowlatt Acton 13th April 1919.

For Visually challenged students only

Question 31. (B)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 Sentences: 10 x 10 = 10

Describe the cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas.
Cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas: Religion: Rashtrakuta rulers practised religious tolerance towards all religions. Even though they were followers of the vedic religion, they also patronised Jainism and Buddhism. Amoghavarsha was a great devotee of Goddess Mahalaxmi. They granted liberal grants and endowments to all religious institutions. Rashtrakutas constructed a number of temples in Malkehda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwar, Naregal, Jogeshwar, Ellora etc, in different parts of their Kingdom. Brahmanas were engaged to perform yagnas and yagas. Kings respected them and gave them money generously.

Development of literature: The Rashtrakuta period witnessed great literary activity in both Kannada and Sanskrit. Amogahavarsha himself was a scholar and he wrote ‘Prashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit. He patronised scholars like Jinasenacharya who wrote Adipurana and Parshwabhyudaya, Mahaveeracharya who wrote Ganita Sara Sangraha and Shakatayana who was the author of Shabdanushasana. Srivijaya wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, which was the earliest work of Kannada literature. It refers to the fact that Karnataka extended from Cauvery to Godavari. Asaga wrote Vardhamana Purana, Halayudha wrote Kavirahasya and Mruta Sanjeevini and Trivikrama wrote Madalasachampu.

Pampa was given patronage by Arikeshari – II. Pampa is respected as the ‘Adikavi’ of Kannada. He wrote Vikramarjuna Vijaya (Pampabharatha) and Adipurana (Champu Work). Ponna was called ‘UbhayaKavichakravarthi’ and he lived in the court of Krishna – III. He wrote Bhuvanaika Ramabhyudaya, Jinaks- haramala and Shanthinathapurana. Pushpadantha wrote Mahapurana and Nayakumar Charite. Shivakotyacharya wrote Vaddaradhane’ which is accepted as the first prose work of old Kannada. Harisena and Gunabhadra were other well known writers.

Art and Architeture: The contributions of the Rashtrakutas to the field of art and architecture are memorable. The architectural monuments of the Rashtrakutas are found at Ellora, Elephanta, Naregal, Malkheda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwara, Jogeshwari, Mandape- shwara etc., The Pallava (Dravidian) style of architecture was adopted by the Rashtrakutas. Temples were built consisting of Pradakshanapatha, Mukhamantapa, Sabhamantapa, Antarala and Garbhagruha. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rockcut (Cave) shrines at Ellora, Ajantha and Elephanta. There are 34 cave temples at Ellora. They belong to Buddhist, Hindu and Jain deties.

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The Kailasanatha Temple: The most extensive temple is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora, (Aurangabad Dist) built by Krishna -1 in the 8th century C.E. The temple is divided into four main parts. It was carved out of a single rock. This storied temple is supported by life-size elephants at the base. It is 276 ft long, 154 feet wide and 107 feet deep. On the walls of the temples are the figures like Ravana lifting mount Kailasa, adorned with Nandi, Vishnu, Bairava, Laxmi, Shiva and Parvathi which attracts one’s attention. There are other such scenes of carvings in bas relief like Shiva in dancing pose and Vishnu and Lakshmi listening to the music. Some other noteworthy and famous rock cuts are Ravana’s cave, Rameshwara cave No. 21, Neelakhanta cave, Jagannatha sabha, Dasavathara cave – 15 etc.

Dashavatara Cave: It consists of two storeys and the underground hall measures 97ft x 50 ft. The sculptured figures of Vishnu and Shiva and the scene of death of Hiranyakashipu are excellent.

Elephanta Caves (Trimurthi Temple):

Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It has a big hall, 130 feet long and 129 feet wide. It has three enttrances leading to the hall. At the end of this hall is the garbhagruha with Linga. Opposite to the central hall at the back, is the gigantic image of Thrimurthi which is 25 feet high. Dwarapalaka, Ardhanareshwara, Shiva – Parvathi and other bas – reliefs have been beautifully carved. The paintings in the cave temples of Ellora are a witness to the fact that the Rashtrakutas patronised paintings.


Trace the Indian National Movement from 1885 to 1920.
Role of the Indian National Congress:

The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 gave a clear warning to the British with regard to the rising national feeling among Indians. There was a need for a common national organisation, which included all classes of people. A.O. Hume (Allan Octavian Hume) inspired the national leaders to establish the Indian National Union in 1884, subsequently the Indian National Congress. The first Indian National Congress session was held at Bombay ort 27th December ( 1885, presided over by Womesh Chandra Banerjee. 72 delegates from different parts of India attended it and four of them were from Karnataka.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 4

Aims and objectives of the Congress:-

  • Promotion of friendly relations among the nationalists and other political workers from different parts of the country’.
  • Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion, province, etc.
  • Presenting the popular demands of the people before the British Government.
  • Organisation of public opinion in the country.
  • To politically educate the Indian masses and demand to include more Indians in the councils and civil services.

In the beginning, the British Government was friendly towards the Congress. But as its strength and popularity increased, Congress was in favour of a responsible Government in India and began to demand the same. This irritated the British Government and it began to adopt a policy of favouring anti-Congress elements.

Freedom movement in India can be divided into three stages, namely:-

  • The first phase: The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905.
  • The second phase: The period of the Extremists in 1905-1920.
  • The third phase: The Gandhian period or Era- 1920-1947.

The first phase: The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905:

The early Congress (1885-1905): Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji (The grand old man of India), Pheroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, G. K. Gokhale, Badruddin Tyabji, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Anandacharlu and others were the moderates.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Policy of the Moderates: The Moderates were cordial towards the British, and they had strong faith in the British sense of justice and fairplay. They felt that India will get modernised and uplifted by the benevolent and liberal rule of the British. Moderates followed the principles of Prayers, Petitions and Protests to pressurize the British Government. They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums to the Government to redress the grievances of the people; If the Government was stubborn to their demands, they used to protest against it. Dadabhai Naoroji established the East 4 India Association in 1866. This Association took up the Indian issues at London and attempted to influence the British public and British legislators to enact policies and laws favoring Indians.

The British were hostile towards the Congress since its establishment and they developed a stem attitude towards the moderates. Their policy was nicknamed as ‘Political Mendicancy’ (begging for political concessions) by the Extremists. They called the Congress as a ‘Factory of sedition’ and leaders as ‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘Disloyal Babus’. Moderates were true patriots and they brought political maturity to the Indians. They exposed the exploitative character of the colonial rule and policies of the British. They were able to underline that the duty of the Government was to consider the interests of the Indians. The notable results of their demands was the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The Moderates played a very important role in the freedom movement in India. They sowed the seeds of liberalism and nationalist ideas in the minds of Indians.

Second Phase – The period of the Extremists – 1905-1920.

The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The Extremists were radical and militant in their approach in contrast to the Moderates. They believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, and only by action. They blamed the British rule for all the prevailing problems and were called as Extremists or Radical Nationalists.

Extremists convinced the public that Self – Government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country. Extremists had grown in self-confidence. The leaders of the extremists were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Roy.

Important events during the Extremist’s Period:

(a) Partition of Bengal in 1905: In 1905, Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal. He justified the partition on administrative convenience, as Bengal was too big a province to be administrated by a single provincial Government. The real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal. The people staunchly opposed this and indulged in the anti-partition movement, boycott of foreign goods and usage of only Swadeshi goods.

(b) The Surat Split-1907: The Extremists and the Moderates differed over issues like election of the President, setting goals and passing resolutions of the Congress. Finally, both the groups agreed to Dadabhai Naoroji for Presidentship of the Congress in 1906. But the Extremists were successful in making Dadabhai Naoroji to declare ‘Swaraj (Self Government) as the goal of the Congress.

The differences once again emerged at the Surat session in 1907. The Moderates wanted Rashbihari Ghosh and the Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be the President. Both the groups refused to compromise resulting in the split in the Indian National Congress. This is commonly known as the ‘Surat Split’. The British undertook many repressive measures and also introduced many Acts to suppress the Extremists. Both groups reunited in the Lucknow Congress session.

(c) Revolutionary Nationalism (Terrorism): The repressive measures of the British encouraged revolutionary terrorism. The revolutionaries were radical nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They were ready for any violent activity in order to drive away from the British from India. They organised secret societies like Abhinav Bharat and Anusilan Samiti to achieve their goal. The revolutionaries were able to create a commotion but most of them were either imprisoned, exiled, killed or hanged.

(d) Muslim League in 1906: All India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Aga Khan, Nawab Mohsim
ul Mulk and others in 1906. The British tried to check the National movement by following a policy of divide and rule. The League followed a path contrary to that of the Congress. They supported the partition of Bengal and also demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. The Hindu Maha Sabha like the All India Muslim League was also against the Indian National Congress.

(e) Morley – Minto Reforms 1909: This act increased the number of elected members to the Central and Provincial Councils and also introduced separate electorates to the Muslims. The number of seats so reserved was in an higher ratio for the Muslim population when compared to the Hindu population. Only Muslims were to vote to the reserved Muslim seats.

(f) Home Rule League 1916: The Home Rule Movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Annie Besant in 1916. The objective of the movement was to attain Self-Government within the British Empire by all constitutional means. The movement soon spread throughout India and became popular. Tilak gave the popular slogan “Swaraj (Home rule) is my birthright and I shall have it”. Mr. Edwin Montague made a declaration on 20th August 1917. By this announcement, it was promised to give responsible Government to Indians, by degrees.

(g) Montague – Chelmsford Reforms 1919: (Government of India Act of 1919) This Act introduced BiCameral legislatures (Diarchy). The Central Assembly (Lower house) consisted of 144 members, 104 elected and 40 nominated members. The Council of States (Upper House) was to have 34 elected and 26 nominated members.

(h) Rowlatt act of 1919 and Jalian Walabagh Tragedy: The British Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. This Act empowered the Government to arrest and detain suspected persons without warrant and imprison them without any trial.

Indians protested against the-Rowlatt Act. A huge meeting was held at Jalian Walabagh on 13th April 1919. About 10,000 unarmed people had gathered there. General Dyer with his troops surrounded the meeting place and opened fire on the innocent people and around 1000 persons were killed and many more were injured.

Part – E

V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: 2 x 10 = 20

Question 32.
Why is Gupta Age called “The Golden Age” in Indian History?

Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age’ and the “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.

Religion: Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular. Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta-II, were worshippers of Vishnu. They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu), image worship, rites and ceremonies became very common. The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya and Raj asuya yagas were performed with all splendour.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Buddhism also enjoyed a great popularity during the Gupta age. The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period. Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu. Education: Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxila, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were the great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology and Science. Literature: The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’.

Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramadhitya-II) partronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court. Among – them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc. Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.

Other important writers and their works : Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam acharithe, Charaka-Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra and others. The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.

Development of science: The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works-Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science. Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe.

Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu. He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun etc., all these hundreds of years.

Art and Architecture: The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh etc were the centres of their artistic activities.

The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated. Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivaling were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhumara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi etc., follow this design.

Painting: In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no.1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.

Question 33.
Give an account of the contributions of Sultanate of Delhi.
Contributions of the Delhi Sultanates:

(a) Administration: The Kingdom of Delhi Sultanate was a theocratic state, (religion was Islam). ‘Shariat’ (Islamic law) were the rules of the state. The‘Ulema (Islamic scholars) controlled the state and administration. The Sultans called themselves ‘Naib’ (deputy) of Kalifa.

(b) Central Government: Sultan was the head of administration. He exercised the legislative, executive and judicial powers. He was guided by the Ulemas. Allauddin kept the Ulemas away from the state affairs. The Sultan carried the administration with the help of a number of ministers. They were the Wazir (the Prime minister incharge of revenue and finance), Ariz-i-Mamlik who was incharge of the military, Amir-i-Mazlis who was incharge of royal forts and conferences, Barid-i-Mumalik – head of the state news agency, Dahir-i- . mumalik – incharge of the royal correspondences, Sadar-us-Sadur who handled religious matters and Kazi-ul-Qazat- the Chief Justice.

(c) Revenue: Land revenue was the main source of the state income. The war booty, tributes, house, water, religious and Jaziya taxes etc were the other sources of income to the state. Land tax could be paid either in cash or kind.

(d) Judicial: The Sultans administered justice with the help of Kazi-ul-Qazat (The chief Justice). The chief Kazi was helped by a Mufti (interpreter of Islamic law). The towns and cities had courts headed by Kazis and assisted by Muftis. Kotwal was the Police officer in charge of law and order.

Army: The Sultan maintained a strong army. It consisted of cavalry, infantry and elephant forces. The Sultanate was primarily a military state. The Sultan was the supreme commander. All ministers and officers except the chief Justice and the Khazis were to render both civil and military duties. Diwan-i-Ariz was incharge of army administration. The pay of the soldiers varied according to their service.

Provincial administration: The Sultanate (Kingdom) was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Iqtas’. The head of a province was called ‘Naib Sultan’. They enjoyed absolute power in their provinces. The main duties were collection of revenue and maintenance of law and order within the province. They maintained an army of their own. Some Sultans transferred the Governors and punished them severely, if they revolted against the state.

Each province was divided into ‘Shiqs and Paraganas’. They were looked after by Shiqdars and Amils respectively. Village was the primary unit of administration. It had traditional officers such as the Chaudhari, the Patwari, the Chaukidar etc.

Literature: This period witnessed the growth of Persian and regional language literature. Persian poets of Central Asia took shelter in the courts of the Sultans of Delhi.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Amir Khusru was the most outstanding writer and he was called the ‘Parrot of India’. He wrote Khazyan-ul- Futuh and Tarkish-i-Alai. Amir Hasan Dehalvi wrote sonnets. Badruddin, Maulana Moinuddin, Umrani and Hassan Nizami were some of the great Persian writers. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak and Firoz Shah Tughalak were great scholars. Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta were great historians of the Tughalak period. Barani started the Tarik-i-Firoz Shahi and it was completed by Shams-i-Siraj Afif. Chand Bardai wrote Prithiviraja Raso, Malik Mohammad Jayasi wrote Padmavati. There was encouragement for translating works from Sanskrit to Persian.

Art and Architecture: The Sultanate of Delhi introduced the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. It represents a synthesis of the two religious ideals like Hinduism and Islam. The important features of the Indo-Islamic movements are minarates, arches, domes, hazaras, large gateways etc., Quwat-ul- Islam, Mosque at Delhi and Adai-Dinka- Jnampara Mosque at Ajmer were the earliest creations. Qutub minar was started by Qutubuddin Aibak and completed by lltumash. Hauz-i-Shamsi, Jami Masjid and Shamsi Idgah were built by lltumash. Jami masjid is one of the largest and most beautiful buildings. Allauddin built the palace of Hazar situm (Palace of 1000 pillars), the fort of Siri, Jamait Khan Masjid and the Alai Darwaza at Delhi. Firoz Shah was the greatest of the builders. He laid out the cities of Firozabad, Fatehbad and Janpur

Question 34.
Write a note on the achievements of Krishnadevaraya.
Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 C.E.): Krishnadevaraya of the Tuluva dynasty was the greatest Ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the son of Tuluva Narasanayaka and Nagaladevi. He came to the throne in 1509 C.E. The glory and prestige of the Kingdom reached its zenith during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. He got a good training under his Prime minister Timmarasa whom he called as Appaji.

Military achievements of Krishnadeva raya:

(a) The war of 1510 C.E. : Krishnadevaraya had to fight a war against Mohammed Shah of Bidar and Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur whose combined army attacked Vijayanagara. A battle took place in 1510 C.E. near Doni, in which the Muslim army was routed and it ran away from the battle field. Krishnadevaraya pursued the enemy forces upto Govilkonda and once again defeated them. He then occupied the Fort of Raichur and the Krishna-Tungabhadra doab area.

(b) Siege of Ummatturu – 1513 C.E.: Krishnadevaraya marched against the rebellious chief, Gangaraja of Ummatturu. Gangaraja was defeated and the forts of Shivanasamudra and Srirangapattana were captured. Krishnadevaraya created a new province with its head quarters at Srirangapattana.

(c) Kalinga (Orissa) expedition- 1513-1518 C.E. : Krishnadevaraya took an expedition to Kalinga to defeat the Gajapathi Ruler, Prataparudra, which was achieved in stages. Udayagiri Fort was captured first. Next, he seiged the Fort of Kondavidu and defeated the Reddies. The administration of the Krishna region of Andhra was entrusted to Salva Thimma. Then he captured the Forts of Vijayawada and Kondapalli. Later, the rest of the Telengana region came under his rule. When the Vijayanagara army reached Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapathis, King Prataparudradeva capitulated and settled for peace in 1518 C.E.

(d) Battle of Raichur-1520 C. E.: When Krishnadevaraya was busily engaged in his Orissa campaign, Sultan Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapura recaptured the fort of Raichur. In 1520, Krishnadevaraya marched against the Sultan, defeated him and took back the Fort of Raichur. In this battle, the Portuguese musketeers helped the Vijayanagara army.

(e) Captured the Fort of Gulbarga – 1523: Krishnadevaraya went as far as Bijapura, From here, he went to Gulbarga and defeated Amir Barid. Then he went upto Bidar and released the Bahamani Sultan, who had been imprisoned by his own subordinates and placed him on the throne of Gulbarga and took the title ‘Yavanarajya Pratishtapanacharya’.

(f) Relation with the Portuguese: Krishnadevaraya maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese at Goa. He did not give help to Albuquerque to conquer Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 C.E. He gave permission to the Portuguese to build a Fort at Bhatkal. Durate Barbosa (1514-1515 C.E.) and Domingo Paes. (1520 C.E.) visited the court of Krishnadevaraya. They have given information about the Vijayanagara trade and the personality of Krishnadevaraya.

(g) Peace in Ceylon: There was political instability in Ceylon (Srilanka) There were revolts against King Vijayabahu. Krishnadevaraya intervened in its political affairs and peace was established. Bhuvanaikyabahu, the son of Vijayabahu was brought to power.

(h) Extend of his Empire: The Empire extended from river Krishna and Godavari in the North, to Kanya- kumari in the South and from the Arabian Sea in the West to the Bay of Bengal in the East. Patronage to Literature: Krishnadevaraya was not only a great Ruler but also a great scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu, Jambavathi Kalyanam, Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Charithe and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit. He patronized eight Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’. He honoured the great scholar Vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘Andra Kavi Pitamaha’. Krishna-devaraya is often described as ’Andhra Bhoja’.

He abolished the marriage tax. In memory of his mother Nagaladevi, he built a new city called Nagalapura and he built Purandara Mantapa at Hampi. He built many tanks and canals for both drinking water and irrigation purposes. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati. He had many titles like Kannadarajya Ramaramana, Kavipun- gava, Karnatakan dhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishtha panacharya etc., The last days . of Krishnadevaraya were unhappy. Due to his only son Tirumala’s death under mysterious circumstances in 1524 C. E. Krishnadevaraya was much grieved and died in 1529 C.E.

Question 35.
Sir M.Vishweshwaraiah is called the “Maker of Modern Mysore” Explain.
Samudragupta (335 to 375 CE): The most outstanding ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta, who was the ’ son and successor of Chandragupta-I. He was an ambitious, ablest and most distinguished ruler and wanted to be an ‘Emperor’ (Chakravarthi).

The Allahabad pillar inscription (Prayag) throws much light on his conquests and personal qualities. The author of this edict was Harisena, the court poet as well as the commander-in-chief of Samudragupta. It is in Sanskrit prose and verse and contains 33 lines. The inscription is in the nature of a prasasti (ponegric). The military conquests mentioned in the inscription may be divided into four distinct campaigns.

(a) Northern campaign (Aryavartha):
The early years of his reign were spent in subduing the provinces of the Gangetic plain called ‘Aryavartha’. According to the inscription, he defeated nine Kings in his northern campaign and annexed their territories into his Empire. The Rulers who were defeated by Samudragupta were

  • Nandin
  • Balavarman,
  • Chandravarman
  • Nagadatta
  • Nagasena
  • Ganapathinaga
  • Achyutanaga
  • Mathila and
  • Rudradeva.

After the conquest, he performed Ashwamedha yaga and became the master of Aryavartha.

(b) Conquest of the Forest Kingdoms (Central India): Samudragupta conquered the forest. Kingdoms of Abhiras, Madrakas, Kakas, Reva, Jabalpur, Nagpur and Bhaghelkhanda in the upper Vindya regions, many of whom surrendered to him voluntarily.

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

(c) Southern Campaign: After consolidating his authority in the north, he turned his attention towards the South and took an expedition. Samudragupta derived his name and fame by his compaigns in South India and he did not extend his direct rule over this region. The inscription refers to the twelve Kings of the south who were defeated and later reinstated to rule under him.

They were

  • Mahendra of Kosala.
  • Vyagraraja of Mahaknathara,
  • Mantaraja of Kowrala.
  • Mahendra of Pistapura.
  • Swamydatta of Kottura
  • Damana of Yarandapalli

Educational reforms: Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourage education among the economically and socially backward classes. Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major educational institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.

His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore University in 1916 at Mysore and, the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and literature, Irrigational scheme: He understood the needs of the fanners. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water.K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at [ (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result,150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya
and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.

He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty canals, tanks and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage. systems were introduced. Railway reforms: Sir M.V. introduced the  ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore-Arasikere and Bowringpete -, Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Maratha Company were brought under the State control.

Relief works: During Sir. M.Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the First World War (1914-18) broke out. This led to a severe shortage of foodstuffs. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices. Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable sen ice to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, the British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. in 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.

Part – F

VI. Match the Following : 5 x 1 = 5

Question 36

1. Swastik – Father of Indian Renaissance
2. Shahajahan – Gandhi of Karnataka
3. Shankaracharya – Jainism
4. Rajaram Mohan Roy – Taj Mahal
5. Hardekar Manjappa – Adwaita Philosophy
1. Swastik – Jainism
2. Shahajahan – Taj Mahal
3. Shankaracharya – Adwaita Philosophy
4. Rajaram Mohan Roy – Father of Indian Renaissance
5. Hardekar Manjappa – Gandhi of Karnataka

2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers 1

Question 37.
Arrange the following in chronological order: 5 x 1 = 5

a. Battle of Plassey.
b.Kalinga War.
c.Birth of Shivaji.
d. Congress session of Belgaum.
e. First Battle of Panipat.
1. (b) Kalinga war – (261 BCE)
2. (e) First Battle of Panipat – (1526 C.E)
3. (c) Birth of Shivaji -(1627 C.E.)
4. (a) Battle of Plassey – (1757 C.E.)
5. (d) Congress session of Belgaum – (1924 C.E.)