2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Time : 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks : 100

Part – A

I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each: 10 x 1 = 10

Question 1.
Name the work that mentions the extent of ancient Karnataka.
‘Kavirajamarga’ of Sri Vijaya refers that ancient Karnataka extended from Cauvery in the south, to Godavari in the north.

Question 2.
Which was the first metal used by man in South India?
iron was the first metal used by humans in South India.

Question 3.
What was the original name of Buddha?
Siddhartha was the original name.

Question 4.
Who was the founder of Kadamba dynasty?
Mayura Varma.

Question 5.
Who were the first among the Muslims to invade India?
Arabs were the first among the muslims to invade India. Mohammad – bin – Quasim, the Governor of Basra invaded India in 712 C.E.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Question 6.
In which year did the coronation ceremony of Shivaji take place?
1674 A.D. at Raigad.

Question 7.
Name the lady who defended the Chitradurga fort.
Obavva, heroically protected Chitradurga fort from Hyder Ali.

Question 8.
Mention the philosophy of Ramanujacharya.
Sri Vaishnava or Vishistadwaita.

Question 9.
Name the treaty which ended the first Anglo-Mysore War.
Treaty of Madras.

Question 10.
Who was the first Kannadiga who secured Bharata Ratna award?
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah.

Part – B

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: 10 x 2 = 20

Question 11.
Name any two universities of ancient India.
The universities of Nalanda, Taxila, Ijjjain. Prayag, Vikramashila, Kashi and Kanchi were the educational centres of ancient India.

Question 12.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Neolithic’?
The word Neolithic is derived from the Greek word ‘neo’ which means New, and ‘Lithic’ which means ‘stone’ meaning ‘New Stone’ age.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Question 13.
Name any two women Scholars of Vedic period.
Gargi, Maitreyi, Shashwati, Lopamudra, Apala, Arundhathi, Ghosha, Vishwavana were some of the famous learned women of the vedic period.

Question 14.
Why was the fourth Buddhist council held? When?

  • 1st Buddhist council was held circa 487 BCE at Rajagriha.
  • 2nd Buddhist council was held circa 387 BCE at Vaishali.
  • 3rd Buddhist council was held circa 251 BCE in Pataliputra.
  • 4th Buddhist council was held circa 100 CE in Kashmir.

Question 15.
Name any two titles of Pulikeshi-II.
Pulikeshi – II assumed the title ‘ ‘Parameshwara’ after the battle of river Narmada. Other titles were “Sri Prithvivallabha, Dakshinapatheshwara, Satyashraya, Kanchigonda, Paramabhaghavata” etc.

Question 16.
Who built the Kailasanatha temple? Where was it built?
Krishna -1 built the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora.

Question 17.
Between whom was the second battle of Panipat fought?
The second battle of Panipat was fought between Akbar and Hemu (Chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal) in 1556 C.E. at Panipat.

Question 18.
Mention the capitals Bahamani dynasty.
Gulbarga and Bidar were the capitals of the Bahamani dynasty.

Question 19.
Who were the parents of Shankaracharya?
Shivaguru and Aryamba,

Question 20.
Name any news papers published by Swami Vivekananda.
Prabuddha Bharata (English) and Udbodhana (Bengali).

Question 21.
Name two important Commissioners of Mysore.
Mark Cubbon and Lewis Bentham Bowring.

Question 22.
Mention any two committees formed for reorganization of States.
Dhar Committee (1948), J.V.P. Committee (1949) and State Reorganization Committee (Fazl Ali) in 1953.

Part – C

III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-29 sentences each: 6 x 5 = 30

Question 23.
Unity in Diversity is the unique feature of Indian history. Explain.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different climatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we see unity in diversity.

(a) Geographical diversity: India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain ’ has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajasthan) rainfall areas etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

(b) Racial and linguistic diversities: People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an, ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.

(c) Social and religious diversity: India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Monogamy, polygamy and polyandry are also practiced. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable subsects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.

(d) Economic and Political diversities: The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand,certain areas are very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modern compared to the rural sectors. In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united.

Important among them are the following ones:

(a) geographical unity: India has well defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below, surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.

(b) Administrative unity: The adminis¬trative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi. Mauryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls, etc. have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unify in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.

(c) Uniformity of education and literature: Sanskrit, the divine language, Vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country. Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite HLsfary (irPUC) culture evolved during Muslim and British rule. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.

(d) Religious and social ceremonies: India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Recent changes: Indian Constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization, etc.have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people.

Question 24.
Discuss about the life and teachings of Mahavecra.
Vardhaman Mahaveer: (599-527 B.C.E.) Life of Mahaveera : He was the 24th Thirthankara and the real founder of Jainism. He was born in Kundagrama near Vaishali in 599 BCE in a kshatriya family. His parents were Siddhartha and Trishala. Siddhartha was the head of a kshatriya clan called Janatrika. Vardhaman had a very comfortable early life. At the age of 18, he married Yashoda and subsequently a daughter was born. Her name was Anojja or Priyadarshini.

Mahaveera was inclined towards spiritual life and renounced worldly life. He left home and wandered naked in search of the truth and the real meaning of life. He lived the life of self-mortification (renunciation) and deep meditation. Finally one day in Vaishaka, he attained Supreme Knowledge (Enlightenment) of Kaivalya(Jnana) and became Kevalin (omniscient) at Jrimbhikagrama in Bihar. Later he became also known as Jina, which means conqueror of all likings and dislikings. His followers came to be known as Jains. Vardhaman was hailed as Mahaveer or the Great Conqueror.

Propagation of the Religion: Mahaveera spent the rest of his life in preaching his doctrines to the people of Magadha. Anga, Mithila, Kosala and other parts of India. His religion attracted a large number of followers and also Kings like Bindusara and Ajatashatru. He accepted the teachings of Parshwanatha as the basis of Jainism. He lived til! the age of 72 years and passed away at Pavapuri near Patna, in 527 BCE.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Teachings of Mahaveera: The main basis of Jainism is the belief in soul and karma. The main objective of Jainism is the attainment of salvation by freeing the soul from earthly pleasures. Mahaveera preached five vows and three jewels for the attainment of salvation.

Three jewels or thiratnas:

  • Right Knowleage is understanding the doctrines of Jainism.
  • Right Faith is the firm belief in the omniscience of Mahaveera.
  • Right action or conduct is the fulfillment of the five great vows.

The main teaching of Mahaveera was “Ahimsa Paramodharma”. He paid great importance to non-violence and rejected the authority of the vedas and the supremacy of the brahmins. He believed in establishing an order which would lead ‘ the people to the path of truth and salvation. To liberate the soul from the bondage of kanna, it is necessary to destroy the latter. This can be achieved by an individual by practising the five vows or principles.

Five vows (principles) or avoidance of the five evil karmas: Mahaveera preached the ethical code and insisted that the following five should be practiced. They are:

  • Non-violence (Ahimsa): Jainism believed in an extreme form of non-violence. Ahimsa means that violence should not be caused by words, thoughts and actions. There should be no harm or ill-treatment to any living being.
  • Truth (Satya): One should not speak untruth, and should also avoid speaking a bitter truth.
  • Non-stealing (Asteya): One should never steal or pick up things that do not belong to them either directly or indirectly.
  • Non-possession (Aparigraha): Aparigraha means one is to avoid the longing for worldly things, possession of wealth and property.
  • Chastity (Brahmacharya): Chastity means control of passions, emotions and desires. The purity of thought, words and deed are to be cultivated. All these five principles will lead to the path of salvation.

Mahaveera did not believe that the universe was created by God nor did he make any reference to Him. He preached that change was a natural phenomenon. Birth and death were natural and applicable to men and matter. He condemned the caste system and the sacrificial rituals. Nirvana should be the ultimate aim of a soul.

Question 25.
Describe the village administration of the Cholas.
Religion: Seals, terracotta figurines and statues narrate the religious life of the ‘ Indus people. They primarily worshipped nature in its various forms. Mother Goddess (Sakti), Pashupathi and Shiva were their main Gods and Goddesses. They worshipped sacred trees like Pipal, Neem and Acacia. The worship of Linga was associated with Shiva was very common. Worship of nature, animals, trees and spirits also existed. The Indus people worshipped animals like the humped bull, elephant, crocodile, unicorn, tiger, naga, etc. Probably the different birds and animals were accepted as vehicles of the various Gods and Goddesses.

Art and crafts: Art specimens of the Indus people are found in their pottery, carpentry, ivory carvings, stone-cuttings, seals and other objects. Statues were made in stone, clay, copper and bronze. The most remarkable contribution of the Indus people to the ancient craftsmanship was in the form of toys. The bronze idol of a dancing girl is a noteworthy object. It indicates their artistic skill.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Seals and Scripts: More than 3000 seals made of terracotta and ivory and stone have been found. Most of them are square or rectangular in shape and small (1/2 to 3cm) in size. These give us a lot of information about their script, religious beliefs, commercial contacts etc., The seals contain figures of animals, human beings and pictographic writings. The direction of the writings was from right to left and pictographic in nature. Many of the symbols used during that age, were similar to the ancient Egyptian script. Due to lack of sufficient written proof, it has been very difficult to study them in depth.

Question 26.
Explain the main features of Hoysala Architecture.
Hoysala art and architecture: Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysala style’ of architecture. The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysala temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.

The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples:

  • Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha).’ This tower is in the form of a pyramid.
  • Hoysala temples are constructed on a raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.
  • Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.
  • The temples have carved stone t windows with apertures and the
    walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.
  • The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.
  • The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.
  • The centre of the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the pillars, on
    the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.
  • Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cells (kutas) e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.

Hoysala temple constructions: Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom. Vishnuvardhana built, Kirthinarayana temple at Talakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur

Mallikarjuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Bankapura. Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-III (1173-1220 CE) built Amrutheshwara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu.

Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli and Panchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

The Channakeshava temple (1117 CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwara temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.

Question 27.
Write an explanatory note on the South Indian expedition of Alla-ud-din Khilji.
South Indian expedition of Allauddin:
Allauddin Khilji was the first muslim ruler to attempt to the conquest of south India. He deputed his able general Malik Kafur to conquer south India. His ambition was to conquer the enormous wealth of south India and that was the reason for his southern campaign.

(a) Expedition to Devagiri (1306 – 1307 C.E.): Ramachandradeva was the King of Devagiri , who had given shelter to King Karnadeva-II of Gujarat and his daughter Devaladevi. He had also not paid the annual tribute to the Sultan for three years. For these reasons, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri, defeated Ramachandradeva, captured Devaladevi and collected immense booty in 1307 C.E. Devaladevi was married to Khizer Khan, son of Allauddin.

(b) Conquest of Warangal (1309 C.E): In 1309 C.E., Malik Kafur marched through (via) Devagiri, secured the help of Ramachan dradeva and attacked Warangal. Pratapa Rudradeva, the ruler of Warangal put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and had to surrender a lot of wealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur. The Ruler of Warangal had to accept Delhi Sultan’s sovereignty.

(c) Expedition to Hoysalas in 1310 C.E: Malik Kafur attacked
Dwarasamudra (Halebeedu) when Veera Ballala – III was away from the capital and was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and plundered the rich temples in the surrounding areas and looted gold, silver, pearls, diamonds and jewels. Ballala – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin Khilji.

(d) Conquest of Madhurai (1311 C.E.) The forces of Delhi under Malik Kafur attacked the capital of he Pandya Kings (Madhurai) and plundered the city. Civil war arose between Sundarapandya and Veerapandya. Malik Kafur razed down the famous temple at Rameshwara. All the wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a large herd of elephants.

Question 28.
Discuss the Socio-religious reforms of Basaveshwara.
Socio-religious reforms of Basavesh wara: Basaveshwara was a revolutionary reformer. He wanted to build a classless and casteless society. The first step to him was integration of the people on equal status, regardless of caste. He advocated equality of all human beings. He strongly , opposed blind beliefs, superstitions, image worship, ritualism, pilgrimage and taking holy bath in the river. He tried to wipe out the evil practice of untouchability and encouraged intercaste marriages. He made it clear that caste system does not have the base of Dharmashastra. He encouraged interdining and gave lingadeeksha to the untouchable Nagadeva ‘ and accepted his hospitality.

Encouraging inter caste marriage, he performed the marriage of Brahmin Madhuvaiah’s daughter with Harijan Haralaiah’s son. Orthodox people were disturbed by these revolutionary acts of Basaveshwara and gave a complaint to King Bijjala that he was spending the money from the treasury to benefit his followers and that he was spoiling Hinduism. Bijjala gave death sentence to Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah. When the news of the death of Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah spread, Basaveshwara was upset and gave up his post as minister and went to Kudalasangama. This led to a revolt by his followers and in this revolt Bijjala was murdered.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Disapproving animal sacrifice, Basavesh wara said “Kindness is the source of religion” (Dayave dharmada moolavdiah). He gave the concept of ‘work is worship’. This was the main message of Basaveshwara to mankind. He tried to propagate purity, morality and humanistic approach through his vachanas. He rejected the idea of building temples. He questioned the need and purpose to build temples when our own body is a temple, where God resides. He felt that his body was the temple, his legs were its pillars and his head was its golden tower

Question 29.
Write about the Subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse.
Subsidiary Alliance : The Indian rulers who had entered into this military alliance with the British had to keep a British army in their state and bear the expenses of the maintainance of that army. It was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798. Expansion of the British Empire in India was its main aim.

Conditions of the subsidiary Alliance:

  • The Indian state which joins it must surrender its external relations to the care of the Company. They should not wage wars and their dealings should be conducted only with the prior permission of the Company.
  • If any ruler was unable to pay the expenses, he had to cede a part of his Kingdom. The protection of that state was the responsibility of the Company.
  • A British Resident should be kept in the court of the King. The Company was not supposed to interfere in the internal affairs of that state.
  • The Company should protect the Indian state against their enemies and no other European could be appointed in their administration without the permission of the Company.

Advantages to the Company:

  • The Subsidiary Alliance disarmed the Indian states. They came under the mercy of the British. The grave consequences of the war were much reduced.
  • Indian states practically lost their independence and became financially weak.
  • The Kings neglected the welfare of their people. So Kings also lost their credibility. The Kings were protected by the Company.
  • The Company was able to check the influence of the French over the Indian states. The Company gradually brought the whole country under its control.
  • The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to sign the Alliance. Later the rulers of Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Nagpur and Gwalior also signed the Alliance.

Doctrine of Lapse: According to this policy, when the Ruler of the protected state, died without a natural heir, then that state would pass on to the British Empire, which was called the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’, (or) According to this policy, if a King died without a son or daughter, his estate lapsed. It should be noted that the King had no right to adopt a son under any circumstances. Doctrine of lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie.

His aim was the expansion of the British Empire in India. By following this policy, the British annexed Satara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Jhansi, Nagpur, Bhagatpur, Coorg, etc.

Conclusion: Doctrine of Lapse was unjustified both on legal and ethical grounds, Whether right or wrong, two third of the Indian territories came under the British rule by 1856. These factors contributed to the outburst of the Indian anger in 1857 in the form of First war of the Indian Independence.

Question 30.
Write about the impact of the British rule on Indian Education.
Thomas Macaulay’s Minutes in 1835:
The Governor-General, Lord William Bentinck appointed Macaulay to settle the dispute between Orientalists and Anglicists. He wrote a report on the ’Indian system of Education’. Macaulay favoured the views of Anglicists. He recommended in 1835, that the accumulated amount (23 lakh) must be exclusively used for the study of western system of education in India through! English as the medium of education. He had great contempt for Indian customs am literature. He said that a single shelf of good European Library was worth the whole native Literature of India an Arabia.

Macaulay aimed to create a class persons, who should be ‘Indian in bio and colour, but English in tastes, in opinic and intellect’. This report was also aimed at converting people to Christianity preparing Indians to work for the company and also the spread of English education. English education infused into them the spirit of nationalism.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Charles Wood’s Despatch (Report) in 1854: Sir Charles Wood prepared and submitted a report to the Government in 1854. It touched upon all aspects of the Indian education (Scheme of future education of India). The implementation of the report led to tremendous changes in primary and secondary education in India. It is considered as ‘The Magna Carta’ of the English education in India. The report made the following important recommendations.

  • Emphasis on western Education: The main object of education was ‘ the teaching of western Education. The dissemination of western thoughts, literature, science and art should be the ultimate aim of education.
  • Company should start Primary schools in villages, High-schools in towns and Colleges at district level.
  • Vernacular Education: Primary education should be in the vernacular languages and English medium for higher education. Opportunities should be given for the study of Indian languages.
  • Grant-in-Aid: To provide Grant-in-Aid to private Educational institutions.
  • Department of Public Instruction : Company should set up a Department of Public Instruction to supervise education in all the Provinces.
  • Technical Education: Institutions must be started to offer specialized training in the technical fields. Training of teachers must also be carried out through separate schools meant for the purpose.
  • Establishment of Universities: Universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras on the model of London University must be opened.
  • Encouragement of women’s education: Women must be encouraged to attend schools. The report gave support to women’s education. Lord Dalhousie accepted these recommendations and brought in noteworthy changes in Indian Education.

Part – D

IV. Answer the following questions as indicated 5 + 5 = 10

Question 31. (A)
Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add on explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
(a) Pataiiputra
(b) Badami
(c) Halebeedu
(d) Devagiri
(e) Agra
(f) Calcutta
(g) Pondicherry
(a) Pataliputra: It is the capital of Bihar State. now called as Patna. which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empire, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.

(b) Badami: The early name of Badami was Vatapi and it was the capital of the Chalukyas. It ¡s famous for rock cut cave temples. It is in bagalkote district of Karnataka.

(c) Halebeedu: its early name was Dwarasamudra and it as the capital the Hovsalas. The Hosa Ieshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are here. It is in Hassan district of Karn a taka.

(d) Devagiri: It is in Maharashira. Alla tid-din-Khiji led many expeditions on Desagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughiak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.

(e) Agra: It is situated on the banks of River Jamona in V.P. It was founded by Sikandar Iodhi, It became the capital of Akbar. TajMahal is the most famous monument of Agra.

(f) Calcutta: It is the capital of West Bengal. situated oi the banks of River Hooghli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.

(g) Pondicherry: It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandel Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.

(h Meerut: It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857)

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

(For Visually Challenged Students only)

Question 31.(B)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: 1 x 10 = 10

(i) Why is Gupta age called “The, Golden age’ in Indian history?
Introduction: Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age’ and the “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinaiy.

Religion: Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular. Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age.

The Gupta rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta-II, were worshippers of Vishnu. They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu), image worship, rites and ceremonies became very common. The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya and Raj asuya yagas were performed with all splendour.

Buddhism also enjoyed a great popularity during the Gupta age. The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period. Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.

Education: Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxila, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were the great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology and Science. Literature: The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’

Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-11 (Vikramadhitya-II) partronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court. Among – them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya,Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc. Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.

Other important writers and their works : Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam acharithe, Charaka-Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra and others. The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Development of science: The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works-Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science. Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha.

He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was theastronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu. He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun etc., all these hundreds of years.

Art and Architecture: The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh etc were the centres of their artistic activities.

The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated. Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivaling were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhumara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi etc., follow this design.

Painting: In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no.l and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.


(ii) Explain the causes and results of the first war of Indian Independence.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the great socio¬religious reformer of modem India. He is called the “Father and prophet of Indian Renaissance”. He had a deep knowledge of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Sufism. He was very much influenced by the English language and western thoughts. His primary aim was to reform the society and religion. He had to face the challenges of orthodox Hindus and fanatic Christian missionaries.

(a) Religious reforms : Raja Ram Mohan Roy wanted to bring about reforms in Hindustan by getting rid of idol-worship, sacrifices and caste rigidity. On 20th August 1828, he founded the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta. The main purpose of Brahmo Samaj was to establish a casteless society based on common worship. Brahmo Samaj taught that ‘God is one, every religion possesses truth, idol worship and ritualism are meaningless and social evils have no connection with religion”. The followers of all religions were invited to come and worship in the same temple in a spirit of brotherhood.

(b) Social reforms: He carried on a long struggle against the social evils like the practice of Sati, child marriages, polygamy, untouchability and purdah system. Widows used to burn themselves up in the funeral pyres of their husbands and Raja Ram Mohan Roy organised agitations against this inhuman custom of Sati. It was due to his persuasion that Lord William Bentinck abolished Sati in 1829 and declared it a legal offence. He worked for the improvement of the status of women and for their education. He encouraged intercaste marriages and remarriage of widows.

Part – E

V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: 2 x 10 = 20

Question 32.
Enumerate briefly the salient features of Indus Civilization.
Religion: Seals, terracotta figurines and statues narrate the religious life of the ‘ Indus people. They primarily worshipped nature in its various forms. Mother Goddess (Sakti), Pashupathi and Shiva were their main Gods and Goddesses. They worshipped sacred trees like Pipal, Neem and Acacia. The worship of Linga was associated with Shiva was very common. Worship of nature, animals, trees and spirits also existed. The Indus people worshipped animals like the humped bull, elephant, crocodile, unicorn, tiger, naga, etc. Probably the different birds and animals were accepted as vehicles of the various Gods and Goddesses.

Art and crafts: Art specimens of the Indus people are found in their pottery, carpentry, ivory carvings, stone-cuttings, seals and other objects. Statues were made in stone, clay, copper and bronze. The most remarkable contribution of the Indus people to the ancient craftsmanship was in the form of toys. The bronze idol of a dancing girl is noteworthy object. It indicates their artistic skill.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Seals and Scripts: More than 3000 seals made of terracotta and ivory and stone have been found. Most of them are square or rectangular in shape and small (1/2 to 3cm) in size. These give us a lot of information about their script, religious beliefs, commercial contacts etc.,

The seals contain figures of animals, human beings and pictographic writings. The direction of the writings was from right to left and pictographic in nature. Many of the symbols used during that age, were similar to the ancient Egyptian script. Due to lack of sufficient written proof, it has been very difficult to study them in-depth.

Question 33.
Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka.
Ashoka the Great: Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of the renowned Rulers of the world. Ele is mentioned in his edicts as ‘Devanampriya’ and “Priyadarshi’. He considered his subjects as his own children and considered that the Primary duty of the King was to promote the welfare of the people. He came to power in 273 BCE, but his coronation was celebrated only in 269 BCE.

Kalinga War (261 BCE): Ashoka waged a war against the Kalinga Kingdom as he considered war and annexation as the rightful duty of a King. It was this imperialistic consideration that prompted Ashoka to conquer Kalinga. Rock Edict XIII of Ashoka tells us that the war ended with bloodshed and misery. One lakh people died, 1.5 lakh were taken as. prisoners of war. This event had a deep impact on his mind. Kalinga war was the turning point in the life of Ashoka because after the war he embraced Buddhism by the influence of Upagupta and followed the principles of non-violence.

Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of all that bloodshed, that this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. He changed his foreign policy from ‘DigvijayaorBherighosha’ (Beating of war drums) to ‘Dharmaghosha or Vijaya (winning the hearts of the people). He declared that “The real conquest was the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. Ashoka did. not wage any war further and dedicated his, whole life for the propagation of Dharma and Peace. Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanistan in the North to Karnataka in the South, from Bengal in the East to Sindu and Baluchisthan in the West.

Edicts of Ashoka: Ashoka issued a number of Inscriptions which throw light on the religion, society and administration of the Mauryans. Ashokan inscriptions are found throughout the extent of his Empire. The languages of these edicts were Pali and Prakriti and the script used was Brahmi and Kharoshti. Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a long time was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. Ashokan inscriptions are found in places like Pataliputra, Rampurava, Rummindei, Sravasti, Bodhgaya, Bhabru, Barabara, Sanchi, Kausambi, Maski, Taxila etc., The edicts are classified into

  • Major rock edicts
  • Minor rock edicts
  • Pillar inscriptions and
  • Cave inscriptions.

Edicts in Karnataka: A number of Ashokan edicts have been discovered in Karnataka. They have been found I Maski (Raichur dist). Gavimatha an Palkigonda (Koppal Dist), Siddapu Brahmagiri and Jatingarameshwg (Chitradurga dist) Nittur and Udayagollai

(Bellary Dist) and Sannathi (Yadagiri). Most of the edicts of Ashoka, preach moral valued to the people and ‘about the teachings of Buddha. The Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to King Ashoka as ‘Devanafhpriya Asokasa’. Thus these edicts helped in identifying the other edicts of Ashoka. He wanted to inculcate the virtues of practical morality, compassion to animals, reverence and obedience to teachers, elders and parents, truthfulness etc.,

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Religion: Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. He believed that a moral life was a pre-requisite of happy life. He propogated the ideas of developing virtues like truthfulness, purity of thought, kindness, honesty, gratitude, self restraint and compassion. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and leading a good moral life. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha and Dharma. Ashoka took many measures for the spread of Buddhism.

He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha. He constructed monasteries and gave liberal grants to them. He followed the policy of religious tolerance. He assumed the title ‘Devanmapriya’ (beloved of the Gods). He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rock edicts throughout the Empire. He appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras, Yukthas, Rajjukas and Sthree

Adhyaksha Mahamatras to spread Dharma among the people. Ashoka organised the 3rd Buddhist council at Pataliputra in 250 BCE, to settle the internal differences among the Buddhists. He took much interest and adopted special measures to propagate Buddhism. He sent Buddhist missionaries to far off lands to preach the Gospel of Buddha. He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.

It was on account of his extensive propagation that Buddhism became a religion of the masses in India and also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma and many South-East Asian Countries. He took many welfare activities and made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled people. He was concerned with the moral and spiritual welfare of his people. H.G. Wells remarks that “Amidst the tens of thousands of Majesties and Royal Highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines along like a Star”.

Question 34.
Describe the Religion, Literature and Art and Architecture of the Vijayanagara period.
Administration: Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong Central Government along with decentralization of power.

(a) Central Administration: Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like f death sentences, trampling to death, etc. Kingship was hereditary. The King was assisted by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’.

The Council of Ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions. Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasaman tadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer),Sabhanayaka (Leader of the council), Mahasand ivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.

(b) Provincial Administration: There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were: –

  • Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
  • The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which was called the Nayankara system. The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories. The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were required to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu.

(c) Village administration: The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchayat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman. Revenue System: Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxes of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.

(d) Military Administration: Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military . to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.

Social conditions:

(a) Caste System: The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras. Brahmanas had a high position in the society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers and traders played a very  important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.

(b) Position of Woman: Women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution, child marriage and polygamy existed in that society.

(c) Social Harmony: Muslims settled in the empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Flindu, Buddha and Jain deities had followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.

Economic Condition:

(a) Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat,, cotton, pulses, spices, arecanuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric, etc., were the main products of agriculture.

(b) Irrigation: They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadevaraya near Magaiapura. A dam and a Raya . canal were also built by him at Korrangal.

(c) Trade and Commerce: Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamonds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, sugar, spices, iron, etc. The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks, etc. Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut, Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade. There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.

Religion: Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains and Muslims. The Sangama rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka -1, refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains. The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged.

Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahasti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were the places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged education and culture.

Education: Mathas, Agraharas and temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal etc., were notable centers of education of that time.

Literature: The Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are:

Sanskrit Works: Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam),Tirumalamba wrote Varadam bikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.

Kannada Works: Tontada Siddaling- eshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote . Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni- Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakayi- Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhu lingaleele, Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.

Telugu: Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna was revered as the father of Telugu he was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.

Question 35.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in Indian National Movements.
Gandhiji an Era-1920 to 1947:
The Montague-Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Julian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.

(a) Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22): A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the call was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetha, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya etc., also joined the movement. Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of National pride.

(b) The Chowri – Chowra incident: 5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji. toured the whole country’ to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. Non-Cooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison. A violent mob at Chowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

(c) The Swaraj Party -1923: Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but consititutional methods.

(d) Simon Commission in 1927: The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.

(e) Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929): The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928. Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.

At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement

Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930: In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any positive response, the British nationalised the production of Salt.

Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the seawater, violating the salt laws. The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.

The first Round Table Conference 1930-31: Muslim League, Hindu Malta Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison. A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Second Round Table Conference 1931: Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims. The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar. This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.

3rd Round Table Conference 1932: This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935. This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Governements. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.

Second World War and National Movement in 1939: The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British

tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress. Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constituent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the “British in the war.

Cripps Mission 1942: The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status . and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a.drowning Bank”.

Quit India Movement in 1942: The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942;-It was declared.that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The ‘ British Government attested the Congress ” leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned. They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.

2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2019

The Cabinet Mission 1946: During his, Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps,Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan. The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnah called for ‘Direct Action Day’ and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar range Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed and killings. A constituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.

Independence and Partition: (June 1947) British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried’ to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country. On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947.

This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor General. Sardar Vallababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.

Part – F

VI. Match the following : 

Question 36.
Match the following :
1. Hala – Navakoti Narayana
2. Harshavardhana – Arab traveller
3. Sulaiman – Established Arya Samaja
4. Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar – Gathasapthasati
5. Swami Dayananda Saraswati – Uttara Patheshwara

  1. – Gathasapthasati
  2. – Uttara Patheshwara
  3. – Arab traveller
  4. – Navakoti Narayana
  5. – Established Arya Samaja


Question 37.
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. 5 x 1 = 5
1. Battle of Plassey
2. Commencement of Vikrama Era
3. Founded the Adil Shahi’s of Bijapura dynasty
4. Arrival of Aryans to India
5. Birth of Madhwacharya.

  1. Arrival of Aryans to India
  2. Commencement of Vikrama Era
  3. Birth of Madhwacharya.
  4. Founded the Adil Shahi’s of Bijapura dynasty
  5. Battle of Plassey.