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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2019
Time : 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100
Part – A
I. Answer the following in one word or one sentence each: 10 x 1 = 10
What is numismatics?
Numismatics is the science of studying coins. Coins being very small in size, contain information in a very short form.
What is meant by Veda?
Veda means knowledge or wisdom.
Who was the founder of Hoysala Kingdom?
Sala was the founder of Hoysala Kingdom.
Which was the new religion introduced by Akbar?
Din-e-IIahi was the religion introduced by Akbar in 1581 C.E.
In which year did the coronation ceremony of Shivaji take place?
In June. 1674 C.E. at Raigadh.
Who was called ‘The Tiger of Mysore’?
Tippu Sultan assumed the title ‘The Tiger of Mysore’.
Who did Queen Laxmibai of Jhansi revolt against the British?
The British refused to recognize her adopted son as the ruler of Jhansi.
Who propounded the Drain Theory?
Dadabai Naoroji Propounded the Drain Theory.
Who was established the AryaSamaja?
Swami Dayananda Saraswati.
Who was Famous as Netaji?
Netaji subhas Chandra Bose.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: 10 x 2 = 20
Mention any two names of India?
The sub-continent is called by different names such as Bharatavarsha, Bharatakhanda, Bharata, Jambudweepa, India and Hindustan.
Name any two sites of the Neolithic age.
The neolithic sites are Maski in Raichur, Cauvery basin, Bellary and Mysore in Karnataka, Salem and Tirunelveli in Tamilnadu, Hyderabad and Kumool in A.P., Kathewar in Gujarat, Sindh, Bundelkhand, Kashmir, West Bengal, Orissa etc.
Which two political institutions assisted the king in the Administration during the vedic period?
Sabha and Samithi were the two politcal institutions which assisted the King in the administration of the land during the vedic period.
Name any two architectural centres of Sathavahanas?
Nasik, Ajantha, Amaravathi, Nagarjunakonda, Ghantasala, Karle, Kanheri, Kondane, Gudiwada, Jaggayapeta, etc., are the important architectural centres of the Sathavahanas.
Mention any two titles of Rajendra Chola I.
Pandita Chola, Gangaiknda Chola etc
Who was the court poet of Vikramaditya VI? Name his work.
Bilhana was the court poet of Vikramaditya-VI. He wrote Vikraman ka Deva Charitham (Biography of Vikramaditya-VI).
Who built Taj-Mahal? Where is it?
Shah Jahan built it in Agra.
Name any two Mathas established by Madhwacharya?
Madhwacharya established eight mathas in Udupi. They are
- Sodey matha
- Sirur matha
- Kaniyur matha
- Pejawar matha
- Palimaru matha
- Adamaru matha
- Krishnapura matha and
- Puttige matha.
Name any two trading centres of French in India?
Pondicherry (Capital), Surat, Chandranagore, Machalipattanam, Karaikkal, Mahe, etc., were the important trading centers of the French in India.
Name any two land revenue systems introduced by British in India.
- Zamindari system
- Ryotwari system
Where was the only congress session presided by Gandhiji held and when?
In 924 at Belgaum, Gandhiji presided over the Indian Congress Session.
Name any two important leaders of the unification of Karnataka.
Alur Venkata Rao, Siddappa Kambli, Andanappa Doddameti, Goruru Ramaswamy Iyengar, K. Hanumanthaiah, S. Nijalingappa, R. H. Deshpande, Srinivas Rao Mangalavede and others.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15 – 20 sentences each: 6 x 5 = 30
Write a note on the importance of archeological sources in reconstructing the history of India.
Archaeology is a systematic study of antiquities. It deals with the actual remains of the dim, distant past by way of inscriptions (Epigraphy), coins (Numismatics) and monuments. These provide us with valuable and useful information to enable us to reconstruct our history.
Excavations : Excavation is the scientific digging of earth for unearthing sources of historical importance. Excavations provide an insight into the social, cultural and religious life of the people of some earlier era. The archaeological remains found during excavations are put to scientific tests by carbon – 14 dating and potassium methods to ascertain their age.
Inscriptions : Inscriptions are writtings found on hard substances such as stone, metal, wood, shell, pottery etc. Inscriptions provide information about the type of coins that were in circulation trade and commerce, the agricultural system that existed, names of Kings, their dynasties and the Era. Culture of the region was also often reflected in inscriptions. So, inscriptions are the most valuable, reliable, authentic and direct sources for writing history. They were written in various languages like Pali, Prakriti, Sanskrit, Tamil, old Kannada etc.
Ashoka’s Hatigumpha cave inscriptions at Kharvela (Orissa) are regarded as one of the earliest. The Allahabad pillar inscription of Samndragupta, Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi – II etc., give details regarding their expeditions. Thus, inscriptions throw light on a variety of matters of history and culture of ancient India.Coins (Numismatics): Coins help us to ‘understand the age, dynasty, economic and religious conditions, script, languages, extent of the Empire etc. Coins were usually minted in gold, silver, copper, lead etc. The coins of Guptas, Shatavahanas, Yadavas, Vijayanagara etc., are noteworthy.
Monuments: Monuments are structures or sites of historical importance. They are the materials actually made and used by the people from the earlier era. Forts, palaces, caves, temples, statues, stupas, mosques, tombs, churches, basadies etc., are examples of monuments. The cave paintings of Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Khajuraho, Badami, the temples at Konark, Belur, Halebeedu, Tanjavur and Hampi, the statues of Gomateshwara and Buddha etc., help us to understand the cultural heritage of India. They are the true signs of the prosperity of that period and speak volumes of the artistic taste of the people and Rulers of that time.
Paintings: The paintings of various periods give us a very vivid picture of the cultural, social and religious aspects of those bygone eras. For example, among the paintings at the Ajanta caves there is a picture of Pulikeshi-II receiving the Ambassador of Khusro-I I. We find the importance of the archaeological sources in reconstructing the history of India. A critical analysis of these sources will enable us to write an authentic history in a very scientific way.
Explain the town planning of Indus civilization.
(a) Town planning: Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
(b) Streets: The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads, divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
(c) Buildings: People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom. Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually inside alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bath room was constructed nearest to the street, so that the waste water drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
(d) Drainage system: One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep. The drains were laid well below the street level. The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus people had perfected the underground drainage system.
(e) The Great Bath (Public bath): The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 x 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them. On al I sides of the pool there were steps.
Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and fresh water was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
(f) The Granary (Warehouse): The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 x 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 x 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.
(g) Dockyard: Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people carried on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill possessed by them.
Conclusion: The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of government.
Discuss the life and teaching of Mahaveera.
Chandragupta Maurya 324-300 BCE: Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty. There is very little information about his parents, his birth and early childhood. He was born in the capital city of Pataliputra. Kautilya, better known as Chanakya, a brahmin from Takshashila took the orphan under his care, educated him in all the princely requirements and trained him to be a worthy commander and Ruler. Chandragupta was fortunate to come under the influence of this great thinker, politician and statesman.
(a) Conquests of Punjab: Chandragupta built a strong army under the guidance of Chanakya and defeated the petty Rulers of Punjab and annexed their regions. He then marched against Magadha.
(b) Defect of the Nanda ruler: Chandra gupta made several attempts to defeat the Nandas. Chanakya had vowed to depose Dhanananda, because he had insulted Chanakya. Dhanananda was finally defeated and killed and Chandragupta Maurya became the King of Magadha and established the Mauryan dynasty. After overthrowing and ending , Dhanananda’s oppressive rule, Chandragupta consolidated his power and freed the country from foreign occupation. The Greek Governors appointed by Alexander in the Sindh and Punjab provinces were defeated and the territories were annexed by Chandragupta.
(c) War with Seleucus: After the death of Alexander, the eastern part of his Empire went over to Seleucus. A war ensued between Seleucus and Chandragupta Maurya. Seleucus was defeated, and he had to sign a treaty with Chandragupta and had to surrender the provinces of Kabul, Afghanistan, Kandahar and Baluchistan. This victory of Chandragupta spread his Kingdom upto the frontiers of Hindukush (Afghanistan) in the north west. Seleucus maintained friendly relations with the Mauryas and sent Megasthanes as his Ambassador to Pataliputra.
Assessment: Chandragupta was undoubtedly one of the greatest Rulers of India. He expelled the Greeks from the country. According to Jain tradition, in the last days of his reign, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism under the influence of the Jain scholar Bhadrabahu. He spent his last days at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka and died by performing ‘Sallekhana’ in 300 BCE.
What were the measures taken by Ashoka for the spread Buddihism?
The greatness of Ashoka is not only due to his territorial expansion, but for his moral greatness and the practical ethics which he propagated. The Kalinga war was a turning point in the life of Ashoka. Seeing the extent of the loss of human life and bloodshed, Ashoka was filled with sorrow and vowed to stop ‘Digvijaya or Bheri Ghosha (Beating of war drums) and to take up “Dharmavijaya’ (Winning the hearts of the people). He declared “The Chief conquest is the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. The Babu edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha and Dharmas.
The intention of Ashoka was to spread Buddhism not only in India but also outside India. He took many measures for the same. They were :
- He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha such as Lumbini, Kapilavastu. Gaya, Saranath and arranged discourses on religion.
- He constructed a large number of monasteries all over the Empire and gave liberal grants for such institutions.
- He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rocks, pillars and on the walls of the caves throughout his Empire.
- Ashoka appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras, Yukthas and Rajjukas to spread Buddhism among people. He also appointed Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to take care of women and bring religious awareness among them.
- He organised the 3rd Buddhist Council at Pataliputra which was presided by Moggaliputra Tissa in 250 BCE. The purpose was to settle the differences among the Buddhists.
- Ashoka sent missionaries to preach Buddhism in Afghanistan, Burma, Srilanka and Europe. He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamithra to Srilanka with a Bodhi Sapling as a symbol of peace.
- He undertook many welfare activities like digging of wells, building rest houses, planting of fruit bearing trees etc., He constructed hospitals for men and animals. He made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled persons. His aim was “Service and Sacrifice”.
Ashoka believed that a moral life was the pre-requisite for a happy life. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and a good moral life. On account of his extensive propagation, Buddism became a religion of the masses in India and it also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma and many South¬east Asian countries and thus became a world religion during his period.
Explain the achievements of Mahmud Gawan.
Mahmud Gawan 1463 – 1481 B.C.: Hewas the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah- in. He was a fascinating personality. He was born in Persia in 1411 C.E. He was well educated and came to India with the intention of carrying on trade. He visited the court of Allauddin Ahmad Shah – II. The Sultan offered Gawan an administrative post. Gawan entered into Sultan’s service and by his sincerity and honesty, rose to the position of the Prime Minister (Wazir) in 1463 C.E. He carried on the administration of the state and saved it from all dangers.
Achievements: As a Prime minister (Wazir), he undertook many conquests and implemented reforms in the Kingdom:-
- Mahmud Gawan first paid attention for the establishment of unity and integrity of the Kingdom.
- Mohammad Khilji of Malwa tried to enter the Deccan Region. Gawan expelled the Sultan of Malwa Bidar, made a treaty with the Sultan and established political stability.
- Gawan conquered Rajamahendri and Kondaveedu. In the west, he extended the territory to the coast, by annexing Konkan. Gajapathi Kapilendra of Orissa invaded the Kingdom. Gawan successfully repelled his attack.
- He subdued many chieftains in the western coastal belt and conquered Hubli, Belagavi (Belgaum) and Goa regions from the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The number of provinces were increased from 4 to 8 for the convenience of administration. They were called ‘Tarafs’. The Jahagir system was abolished. The administration was highly centralised.
- Gawan classified all the land of the Kingdom on the basis of fertility and irrigation facility. Land was surveyed and the revenue was fixed. The collection of revenue was only in cash.
- Gawan established a Madarasa : a College for higher education, at Bidar in 1472 C.E. He built a library and collected over 3000 manuscripts from all over the world. He was a scholar. He wrote books on religion, mathematics, literature and medicine. His important works were Manazir – ul- Insha and Riyaz – ul – Insha.
Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by the native muslim leaders. They made false allegations against him. He was beheaded in 1481 C.E. After his death, the Bahamani Kingdom started declining.
Explain the life and teaching of Shankaraacharya.
Early life of Shankaracharya (788-820 C.E.): Shankaracharya was the exponent of Advaitha (Non-duality) Philosophy. He was born at Kaladi in Kerala in 788 C.E. His parents were Shivaguru and Aryambha. He was inclined towards spiritualistic life and became a sanyasi with the permission of his mother. Shankara went in search of a spiritual teacher. He met his teacher Govinda Bhagwathpada on the banks of the river Narmada. He studied under him, and very soon his teacher found in Shankara, great qualities to attain the highest spiritual knowledge. He toured the whole of India – from Kashmir to Kanyakumari three times on foot. Wherever he went, he expounded his Advaitha Philosophy. He made a spiritual conquest of India. He earned the titles of Sarvajna and Jagadguru.
Works of Shankaracharya: Shankara wrote commentaries on Brahmasutra, the Upanishads and the Bhagvadh Geetha. He composed Viveka Chudamani, Shivananda Lahari, Ananda Lahari, Soundarya Lahari, Bhajagovindam, Badaramayana, Geetha Bhashya etc.
Establishment of the four mathas: To spread the Advaitha Philosophy, Shankaracharya established four mathas in the four directions of the country.
- Govardhana Peetha at Puri (Orissa – east)
- Kalika Peetha at Dwaraka (Gujarath – west)
- Jyothirmatha at Badarinath (U. P- north)
- Sharada Peetha at Sringeri (Karnataka – south)
Advaitha (or Monoism) Philosophy: Shankaracharya’s contribution to Indian culture is the Advaitha Philosophy. Advaitha means non-duality or monoism.
The main features of the Advaitha propounded by Shakaracharya are:
- The Universal Soul (God or Brahma) and the individual Soul are inseparable. They are one and the same.
- By Jnana Marga (knowledge), individual Soul ultimately merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma). This may be called as salvation (Moksha). There is no duality between them.
- The individual Soul has no independent existence. The individual Soul merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma) through Sadhana. It is a part of Brahma and the ultimate reality is Brahma. That is why Shankara said ‘I am Brahma’ (Aham Brahmasmi).
- Brahma is the ultimate truth. It is Nirguna, which means it has no predefined or specific qualities. It is Nirakara which means it has no shape or form of any kind and Swaprakashaka which means self-evident.
- ‘Brahma Sathya, Jaga Mithya’ – It means Universal Soul (Brahma) is the ultimate reality and world is an illusion or Maya. To an ordinary man, the world appears to be real, because of ignorance.
Shankarachaiya advocated ‘Jnana Marga’ (path of knowledge), to attain salvation (Moksha). He combined the path of Karma and Bhakti with Jnana. He strived to unify the different cults, by giving equal importance to the worship of Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha, Kumara and Shakti. Therefore he is called as ‘Shanmatha Sthapanacharya’.
Discuss the personality of Swamy Vivekananda.
Swami Vivekananda: He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paiama hamsa. He studied both Indian and Western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influence of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
World religious conference at Chicago – 31st may 1893:
Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the world. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference” at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America.” This won over the hearts of the people. He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization, He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts, For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in society. The Mission started several schools, hospitals, orphanages and old age Homes across the country.
It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes etc., Its branches have been established all over the world. Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the wido’’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth’’.
Social and religious reforms: Vivekananda condemned the caste system, rituals ceremonies and superstitions. He stresses the need for social reforms. He preacher tolerance, equality and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women am eradication of poverty.
National Awakening: Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous ca1 “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation. He has been popularly called e the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedanth Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
Write about the Subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse.
Subsidiary Alliance : The Indian rulers who had entered into this military alliance with the British had to keep a British army in their state and bear the expenses of the maintenance of that army. It was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798. The expansion of the British Empire in India was its main aim.
Conditions of the subsidiary Alliance:
- The Indian state which joins it, must surrender its external relations to the care of the Company. They should not wage wars and their dealings should be conducted only with the prior permission of the Company.
- If any ruler was unable to pay the expenses, he had to cede a part of his Kingdom. The protection of that state was the responsibility of the Company.
- A British Resident should be kept in the court of the King. The Company was not supposed to interfere in the internal affairs of that state.
- The Company should protect the Indian state against their enemies and no other European could be appointed in their administration without the permission of the Company.
Advantages to the Company:
- The Subsidiary Alliance disarmed the Indian states. They came under the mercy of the British. The grave consequences of the war were much reduced.
- Indian states practically lost their independence and became financially weak.
- The Kings neglected the welfare of their people. So Kings also lost their credibility. The Kings were protected by the Company.
- The Company was able to check the influence of the French over the Indian states. The Company gradually brought the whole country under its control.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to sign the Alliance. Later the rulers of Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Nagpur and Gwalior also signed the Alliance.
Doctrine of Lapse: According to this policy, when the Ruler of the protected state, died without a natural heir, then that state would pass on to the British Empire, which was called the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’, (or) According to this policy, if a King died without a son or daughter, his estate lapsed. It should be noted that the King had no right to adopt a son under any circumstances. Doctrine of lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie. His aim was the expansion of the British Empire in India. By following this policy, the British annexed Satara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Jhansi, Nagpur, Bhagatpur, Coorg, etc.
Conclusion: Doctrine of Lapse was unjustified both on legal and ethical grounds, Whether right or wrong, two third of the Indian territories came under the British rule by 1856. These factors contributed to the outburst of the Indian anger in 1857 in the form of first war of the Indian Independence.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. 5 + 5 = 10
Question 31. (A)
Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
(a) Harappa: It is one of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montegomy district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayaram Sahan excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.
(b) Pataliputra: It is the capital of Bihar State. now called as Patna. which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empire, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
(c) Kanchi (Kancitipuram): It is near Chennai ill Tamil Nadu. It was the capital of the Pahlavas. The city is famous for Shaia and Vaishanava temples. [lie famous Karnakshi teinole is located here.
(d) Halebeedu: its early name was Dwarasamudra and it as the capital the Hovsalas. The Hosa Ieshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are here. It is in Hassan district of Karn a taka.
(e) Agra: It is situated on the banks of River Jamona in V.P. It was founded by Sikandar Iodhi, It became the capital of Akbar. TajMahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
(f) Hampi: It is situated on the banks of River Tungabhadra (Bel larv). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupakslia temple.Vila) avittala swarny temple, Stonechariot etc., are the noteworthy monuments here.
(g) Bombay: It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was tite main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.
(f) Meerut: It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857.
(For Visually Challenged Students only)
Question 31. (B)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: 1 x 10 = 10
(i) Why is Gupta age called “The Golden age’ in Indian history?
Introduction: Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age’ and the “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.
Religion: Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular. Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age.
The Gupta rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta-II, were worshippers of Vishnu. They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu), image worship, rites and ceremonies became very common. The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya and Raj asuya yagas were performed with all splendour.
Buddhism also enjoyed a great popularity during the Gupta age. The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period. Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education: Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxila, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were the great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology and Science.
Literature: The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta – II (Vikramadhitya-II) partronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court. Among – them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumarasambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc. Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.
Other important writers and their works : Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam acharithe, Charaka-Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra and others. The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
Development of science: The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works-Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science. Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was theastronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe.
Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu. He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun etc., all these hundreds of years.
Art and Architecture: The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh etc were the centres of their artistic activities.
The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. Its doorway is excellently carved and decorated. Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivaling were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhumara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi etc., follow this design.
Painting: In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no.l and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.
(ii) Describe the achievements of Pulikeshi II.
Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.): Pulakeshi – II was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi- II was the son of Keertivarma-I. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration. Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi-II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two. Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu- Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription etc, render information about Pulikeshi -II.
This civil war was an unfortunate incident, but became inevitable for Pulikeshi II, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi-II.
Conquests of Pulikeshi-II:
(a) Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs: The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulakeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulakeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of River Bhima. Appayikaran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulakeshi II.
(b) Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupas and Gangas: After strengthening his power and resources, Pulakeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.
(c) Attack on Lata, Malwa and Gurjaras: Pulakeshi – II set his eyes towards the North-west, on Lata, Malwa and Gurjarat. As a result, these rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories upto Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasimha as the Governor of Gujarat.
(d) War with Ilarshavardhana: The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulakeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulakeshi – II. But Pulakeshi II who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow’ Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulakeshi II in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulakeshi II assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshina patheslnvara’. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulakeshi -II.
(e) Expedition towards East: After the Northern campaign, Pulakeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
(f) Expedition in South: The Pal lava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulakeshi II invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendsavarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.
After these successful military campaigns. Pulakeshi returned to his capital and reigned m peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshin apatheshwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja etc.
Extent of his Kingdom: The Kingdom of Pulakeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and upto river Cauvery in the south.
Due to the campaigns of Pulakeshi- II, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru-II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese’pilgrim HieunTsang visited the court of Pulakeshi- II in 641 C.E. He has given us a factual and reliable .
Description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulakeshi – III had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimhavarman – I. Pulakeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘ Vatapikonda’.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: 2 x 10 = 20
Critically examine the administrative experiment of Muhammed-bin- Tughlaq.
Administrative experiments of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
(a) Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the Ganga and Yamuna (Doab) rivers being a very fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state, Mohammad – bin – Tughalak decided to increase the taxes there. But he enforced the tax raise at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of additional taxation. Revenue collection was also strict, which the farmers were unable to pay. This measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
(b) Transfer of capital in 1327 C.E.: Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objective was to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. Also, Devagiri occupied a central position in India and it was equidistant to Delhi and the other important cities of his Kingdom. He desired to shift the entire Delhi population along with his court. Barani says that “Not a cat or a dog was left”. Causes for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.
The tiresome journey passing through the dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by dacoits, hunger, mental agony etc., resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan having atlast realised his folly, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire incident made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool, operation – Daulatabad was a “Monument of misdirected energy”. This scheme also failed on account of the Sultan’s unplanned method of forcing it on his people.
(c) Circulation of token currency in 1329 C.E.: Mohammad-bin- Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief to the Doab people famine, transfer of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency in circulation, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass. Tanka was the token currency and its value was made equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as a monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as the ‘Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert. The Sultan did not take precautionary measures to the minting of the coins.
People started minting their own coins. Hence, the empire was flooded with thousands of counterfeit copper coins. People paid their taxes with these counterfeit coins. Copper coins lost their value as a medium of exchange. Trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his error in judgment and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 C.E. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. When everybody was there to exchange their copper coins with silver and gold coins, the treasury became empty.
Mohammad – bin-Tughalakwas an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgment and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice, without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was a ‘mixture of opposites”. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks that, “Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions”. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant were ill-planned and badly executed.
Describe the religion, literature and art and architecture of Vijayanagara period.
Administration: Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong Central Government along with decentralization of power.
(a) Central Administration: Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like f death sentences, trampling to death,etc. Kingship was hereditary. The King was assisted by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The Council of Ministers played an important role in the administration.
They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions. Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasaman tadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanayaka (Leader of the council), Mahasand ivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.
(b) Provincial Administration: There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were:
- Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
- The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which was called the Nayankara system. The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories. The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were required to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu.
(c) Village administration: The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchayat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman. Revenue System: Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxes of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.
(d) Military Administration: Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military . to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.
(a) Caste System: The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras. Brahmanas had a high position in society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers and traders played a very ’ important role in social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.
(b) Position of Woman: Women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received an education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution, child marriage and polygamy existed in that society.
(c) Social Harmony: Muslims settled in the empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Flindu, Buddha and Jain deities had followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.
(a) Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat,, cotton, pulses, spices, are canuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric, etc., were the main products of agriculture.
(b) Irrigation: They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadevaraya near Magaiapura. A dam and a Raya . canal were also built by him at Korrangal.
(c) Trade and Commerce: Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamonds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, sugar, spices, iron, etc. The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks, etc. Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut, Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade. There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.
Religion: Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains and Muslims. The Sangama rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka -1, refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains.
The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahasti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were the places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged education and culture.
Education: Mathas, Agraharas and temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal etc., were notable centers of education of that time.
Literature: The Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are:
Sanskrit Works: Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam),Tirumalamba wrote Varadam bikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.
Kannada Works: Tontada Siddaling- eshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote . Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni- Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakayi- Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhu lingaleele, Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.
Telugu: Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna was revered as the father of Telugu he was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
Sir.M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysore’ Explain.
Introduction: Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist, liberal minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as ” The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
Early life and career of M.V.: Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivas Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura. he went to Bangalore for further studies. He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
Administrative reforms: Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the Local Self Governing bodies act. This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up. Industrial development: ‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India.
He started several industries in the state. The important industries arc Sandal oil factory at Mysore,’ Soap factor}’, Central Industrial workshop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk Research Center at Channapattana. Small scale and cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce
Educational reforms: Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourage education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major educational institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore. His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore University in 1916 at Mysore and, the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and literature
Irrigational scheme: He understood the needs of the fanners. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for r better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at [ (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation. He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty canals, tanks and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
Railway reforms: Sir M.V. introduced the “ ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore-Arasikere and Bowringpete, Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Maratha Company were brought under the State control.
Relief works: During Sir. M.Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the First World War (1914-18) broke out. This led to severer shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices. Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable sen ice to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, the British Government honoured him with Knightood in 1915. in 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in Indian National Movements.
Gandhiji an Era – 1920 to 1947: The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.
(a) Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22): A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in. September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non¬Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the call was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetha, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya etc., also joined the movement. Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of National pride.
(b) The Chowri-Chowra incident: 5th February 1922 : Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. Non-Cooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison. A violent mob at Chowri Chowra (U.R) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.
(c) The Swaraj Party -1923: Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.
(d) Simon Commission in 1927: The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘ Simon go back’.
(e) Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929): The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative, proposal acceptable to all the political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928. Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.
At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement
Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930: In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any positive response, the British nationalised the production of Salt. Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the seawater, violating the salt laws. The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars.
Salt became a symbol of our National Pride. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31: Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison. A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Second Round Table Conference 1931: Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims. The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar. This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.
3rd Round Table Conference 1932: This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935. This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Governments. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.
Second World War and National Movement in 1939: The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress. Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constituent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.
Cripps Mission 1942: The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to In4ife after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.
Quit India Movement in 1942: The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned. They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.
The Cabinet Mission 1946: During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, LawTence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan. The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnah called for ‘Direct Action Day’ and insisted upon having Pakistan (Leka. rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed and killings. A constituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasac on 9th December 1946. The Congres: under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.
Independence and Partition : (June 1947) British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.
On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General. Sardar Vallababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.
Part – F
VI. Match the following: 5 x 1 = 5
1. Rajan – King of Kushana
2. Kujulakadphisis – Lucky draw
3. Kuduvalai – Head of the tribe
4. Pampa – Anubhava mantapa
5. Basaveshwara – Adikavi
- – Head of the tribe
- – King of Kushana
- – Lucky draw
- – Adikavi
- – Anubhava mantapa
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order.
(a) First Battle of Panipat
(b) Unification of Karnataka
(c) Subsdiary Alliance
(d) Assession of Kanishka
(e) Battle of Takkolam.
(d) 120 ce – 1
(c) 1799 – 4
(b) 1956 – 5
(a) 1526 – 3
(e) 949 ci – 2