Students can Download 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2019, Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and to clear all their doubts, score well in final exams.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2019
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Answer all questions.
- Figures in the margin indicate full marks.
- Write correct question numbers for your answer.
I. Answer the following questions in one sentences each: ( 10 x 1 = 10 )
When did the Constitution of India come , into force?
26th January 1950.
Name the Iron Man of India.
Sardar Vallabha Bhai Patel.
None Of The Above.
Mention the Party system in India.
Multy Party System.
Which day is celebrated as “Labours’ Day”?
Salumarada Thimmakka belongs to which district?
What is coalition government?
Formation of government by various political parties is called coalition Government.
What is the root word of terrorism?
Latin word Terrere.
What is Privatization?
A process of transferring ownership of enterprises from public sector to the private sector is called privatization.
What is Apartheid?
Discrimination on the basis of race, religion, caste, colour and gender is called Apartheid.
II. Answer any ten of the following in 2 to 3 sentences: ( 10 x 2 = 20 )
How many states was Punjab divided into? Which are they?
Punjab was divided into two states – They are Punjab and Haiyana.
Give two examples of All India Services.
- Indian Administrative Service.
- Indian Police Service.
What are the three popular slogans of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar?
Education, Agitation, Organisation.
Mention the caste based inequality.
Discriminating the people on the grounds of caste is called caste based inequality.
Name any two persons who identified the identity politics.
- L.A. Kauffman
- Barbara Smith.
What are the two hurdles to create corruption free India?
- Lack of moral values
- Political criminalization.
What is globalisation?
A process of integrating the economy of a country with world economy is called globalisation.
Name two permanent members of the Security Council.
Mention two SAARC summits which are held in India.
- 2nd summit – 1986 – Bangalore (Nandi Hills)
- 14th summit-2007 – Delhi.
Write any two ‘Code names’ of nuclear tests conducted by India.
- 1974 nuclear test (smiling of Buddha)
- 1998 nuclear test (Sakti-I and Sakti-II).
What is ‘Perestroika and ‘Glasnost’?
Perestroika means economic rehabilitation and glasnost means openness in administration.
Name the leaders who have signed ‘Pahchsheel’.
Zhou-Enlai of China.
III. Answer any eight of the foUdwing questions in 15-20 sentences ( 8 x 5 = 40 )
Write the advantages of Elector’s Photo Identity Card.
The Electors Photo Identity Card is first ‘ introduced by the then Chief Election Commissioner T.N. Sheshan in 1993. Following are the merits:
- It removes the evil practices like corruption, impersonation and bogus voting.
- Free and fair elections can be conducted by introducing EPIC.
- The real voter can cast the vote by using EPIC.
- EPIC is essential to conduct the elections transparently and honestly.
- It is an official document issued by the Election Commission to all the eligible voters.
- It can also use to get the various benefits of the government.
Explain the features of civil service.
The features of civil service are as follows:
- Professional body: Civil service consists of a professional body of officials who are permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole time job and career service.
- Hierarchy: As per the scalar system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where high ranking administration officer with discretionary powers supervises their subordinates.
- Political neutrality: Civil servants always refrain from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any kind of political regime.
- Anonymity: Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the government. Recognition for good work or disrepute for any omission goes only to the minister and not to the civil servants.
- Impartiality: The civil servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of society.
- Service motto: They have to work for the welfare of the society. They must be humble and service minded towards the public.
- Permanent: Civil servants are called the permanent executive. They discharge duties till they attain the age of superannuation.
- Jurisdiction of law: Every civil servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If he crosses the limit, he is met with disciplinary action.
- Special training: Once the candidates are selected for civil service, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration.
What are the causes for backward class movement?
The causes for Backward Classes Movement are:
- Social discrimination: These comm-unities faced social discrimination like superior and inferior throughout the years. They were not allowed to come to the main stream.
- Economic exploitation: Exploitation leads to economic inequality along the Backward Classes. Many of these communities were ‘Below Poverty Line’ and were poverty stricken.
- Educational backwardness: Upper castes monopolized the field of education and denied access to these communities. The backward class communities were totally neglected from these facilities.
- Denial of political representation: A few communities dominated the political field and other backward classes were totally neglected and thus their representation was not enough.
- Unification: It is difficult to achieve anything without unity and integrity. Hence Backward Classes who are more than 350 in number were unorganized and scattered. To unite them and to fight for their cause, movements were started.
Discuss the political implications of Peasant movement.
The causes for Peasant Movement:
(a) Feeling of deprivation: Peasants are deprived of the facilities when compared to organized sectors like industry. They face problems like shortage of quality seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, lack of adequate price and support price waiving of loans, subsidies for agricultural implements, insurance for crops, etc.
(b) Negligence of farmers problem: The previous governments have neglected the interests of farmers. In this behalf Bengal Government banned the Blue Crop and acquired farmers’ lands and also imposed heavy taxes.
(c) Unbearable debts: Peasants raise loans from banks and financial Institutions but they are not in a position to repay it for reasons like market fluctuation, the tactics of brokers, etc. This leads to unbearable debts and they commit suicide.
(d) Natural calamity: Peasants depend more on monsoon which are usually irregular. Hence it is popularly known as ’Indian agriculture is playing gamble with monsoons”. As a result, floods and famine, diseases to crops, soil erosion leads to infertility of the soil.
(e) Unscientific land acquisition: In the wake of urbanisation and industriali-zation, the Governments are acquiring cultivable lands of farmers. Many a time, proper compensation is not given and they are not provided with alternative. As a result they become landless and unemployed.
(f) Support price: Amidst innumerable problems, farmers do not get adequate price to their produce. At that time the Government has to intervene and announce support price to the farmers produce. When the Government fails to do so, they intensify agitation.
All the above facts are the main causes for Peasant Movement.
Explain the various components of Nation building.
The components of nation building are as follows:
(a) Community support: To realize the process of nation building, collective support and endeavor of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Discipline, work culture and patriotic feeling in the minds of the people also contribute for nation building.
(b) Good governance: Good- Governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance.
(c) Committed leadership: History depicts many examples of committed leadership. For example In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation building. He formulated goals for nation building and introduced planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had a vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modern India.
(d) Political culture: Political culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes and behavior towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behavior to national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity and statesmanship.
(e) Power sharing: To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of dictatorship. Hence sharing of power ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio¬economic democracy.
How is illiteracy as an impediment to the Indian democracy? Discuss.
Illiteracy acts as an impediment to democracy. It can be justified on the grounds of the following facts:
(a) Lack of political awareness: Illiteracy would’ contribute for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote. They do not understand the ideologies of political parties, their manifestoes and the performance of ruling party.
(b) Low percentage of votes: Low percentage of votes is common in all the elections. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extent by low percentage of polling.
(c) Money and muscle power: The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate, through dubious means.
(d) Politics of populism: The voters in India are attracted by politics of populous. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the government. These populous programmes force them to remain useless category. This becomes an impediment to national development.
Explain the remedies for communalism.
Promotion of secularism and national integration as remedies for communalism are a must.
Secularism: The constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides that every religious denomination or any section has the right to establish religious institutions and manage their affairs.
In December 2013 the Central Cabinet approved the Prevention of Communal Violence (Access to Justice and Reparations) Bill to punish the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by the Parliament.
National Integration: It is the process of uniting the people emotionally and politically. India is a land of diversity. It makes only a limited sense to call it a nation because it has various religions, languages, caste and culture etc. So for the success of Indian democracy, promotion of national integration is necessary. To preserve and sustain national integration, many provisions have been adopted in the constitution. Like National integration Council, Zonal Councils, National Security Council and Armed forces play a great role in the protection of national integration.
Neighbourhood Peace Committees: The aftermath of Babri Masj id demolition and subsequent communal riots and social ‘ tensions in different places and ineffective Governmental measures has made it vital to establish neighbourhood peace committees with eminent or prominent people as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot prone or communally sensitive areas.
The main objectives are arresting and containing social tensions which may flare up communal riots in the neighbourhood areas taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes. In the aftermath of conflict, restoring normalcy and pacifying affected people. Establishing harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.
Explain the organisation and functions of Lokayukta.
Organisation: Lokayukta Institution was came into force in Karnataka in 1984. It comprises 3 members, one is Lokayukta and two are the Upa Lokayuktas. Retired Judge of Supreme Court or Chief Justice of High Court is appointed as Lokayukta and retired Judge of High Court is Upa Lokayukta.
The Governor appoints the Lokayukta with the consultation of committee consisting of Chief Minister, Chief Justice of High Court, Speaker of Assembly, Chairman of the Council and Leaders of Opposition. The Lokayukta is appointed for 5 years and removed from the office by the Governor on the charge of misbehavior or incapability proved in-the State Legislature by 2/3rd majority.
The powers and functions of Lokayukta are as follows:
- Lokayukta receives complaints and allegations from any person against the corrupted officials.
- Lokayukta can proceeds to investigate on a prima facie consideration. If it is satisfied that a criminal offence has been committed, it may initiate prosecution.
- Lokayukta may investigate any action taken by the public servant if it is referred by the state government.
- Lokayukta has extensive powers of raids, searches, seizure of documents, properties, jewellery, cash, etc. which are unaccounted.
- In the process of investigation, Lokayukta deals with the issue of search warrant.
Describe the role of youth against terrorism.
Role of youth against corruption :
Corruption is misuse of public power for private profits by violating the constitution. Independent India has seen scams like – Farefax, Bofors, Share deal, Stamp paper scandal, fodder, 2-G Spectrum, Coal and others involving billions of rupees of public money. Inspite of these scams, still corruption persists in all walks of life including education, health, administration and politics.
Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan the pioneer of the “Total Revolution”, inspired youth during 1970s to revolt against the corrupt administration. Today the mood of the country’ especially the mood of the youth is against corruption on a war footing. The war against corruption is perceived as the mother of all wars.
Anti corruption movement gathered momentum when Sri Anna Hazare kickstarted the movement and gave a call to the youth to join him in a fight against corruption under the banner of India against corruption’. The overall effect of the youth movement against corruption have resulted in the creation of the institution of Lokpal, passing of the Acts of Right to Information (RTI), Right to Education (RTE), Sakaal and other various drastical measures.
Discuss the meaning and importance of liberalisation.
Importance of liberalization is as follows :
(a) Liberalisation believes in free market economy’. Therefore, it implies the gradual reduction of government control. This means the abolition of a licence- raj. It results in the removal of red-tape, procedural delay and bureaucratic regulation of economic activities.
(b) Liberalisation lays the foundations for multiplication of business, trade and commerce. In a free market economy, diversification of business, trade and organisation takes place.
(c) As there is expansion of business and as more and more capital is injected into the economy, the use of technology and automation becomes necessary. This helps in mechanization of work and computerization of administrative processes. Efficiency and economy are ensured.
(d) Under the process of liberalization, the consumer is benefitted in many ways. There is a wider choice of goods and services. There is a great improvement in quality of goods and after-sales services.
(e) Liberalisation introduces a competitive market system. In every matter there is free competition. To the extent such competition is regulated by the government, the competition is healthy. This ensures not only better standards of goods and services, but also reasonable prices.
(f) Finally, liberalization in the long-run brings about economic growth and progress of the nation. Of course, there must be adequate, planned and goal oriented governmental regulation.
The political implications of liberalization are as follows :
- In the name of liberalized policy, citizens knock at the door of international opportunities with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face lots of problems from such as brain drain.
- As the process itself is capital intensive, it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for jobs.
- The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates lot of wastage leading to environmental degradation.
- The price of certain commodities like life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc. are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.
- It affects the common man in his day to day life as he finds it difficult to earn his livelihood.
- Flexibility of monetary and fiscal policies of the government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.
Mention the objectives of UNO.
The objectives of UN are incorporated in Article 1 of the UN Charter. They are:
- To maintain international peace and security.
- To develop friendly relations among the nations.
- To seek co-operation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
- To co-operate in promoting respect for human rights.
- To maintain freedom for all without discrimination on the basis of race, sex, languages or religion.
Write about Non-alignment.
The most important principle of Indian foreign policy is Non-Alignment. It means detachment from any military bloc and solving all international problems through mutual co-operation and peaceful methods. After the 11 World War, the world was divided into two military blocs, one led by USA and another by USSR. Many countries of ‘ the world became the allies of these two military blocs. But India was not aligned to any of the military blocs. India was the first country to speak of non alignment and major contributor to the emergence of Non Alignment Movement. India, Yugoslavia, Indonesia, Egypt and Ghana were the original supporters of the movement.
IV. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: ( 2 x 10 = 20 )
Describe the Government of India Act 1935.
The Government of India Act 1935 contained 321 Articles and 10 Schedules. The important provisions of the Act are as follows:
(a) Federation: The Act provided for the establishment of Federation of India. It consisted of Provinces of British India and Princely States as units. For the first time an attempt was made to establish a Federal Government.
(b) Distribution of powers: It divided legislative powers between the Central and Provincial legislatures. There was a three-fold division:-
- Federal list: Consisted of 59 subjects like External Affairs, Currency, Defence etc., over which the federal legislature had legislative powers.
- Provincial list: Consisted of 54 subjects like Police, Education etc., over which provincial legislafure had jurisdiction.
- Concurrent list: Consisted of 36 subjects like Criminal law, Civil procedure, Marriage and Divorce etc., over which both the federal and provi cial legislatures had competent.
- The Residuary powers were vested with the Governor General.
(c) Dyarchy at the centre: The Dyarchy which was established in the Provinces by the Act of 1919 was now adopted at the centre. The executive authority vested in the Governor General included the following:
- The administration of reserved subjects like defence, external affairs etc., was done by Governor General with the help of Councilors, who are appointed by him and not responsible to legislature.
- In the matters of transferred subjects the Governor General acted on the advice of Council of Ministers who were responsible to the legislature.
(d) The Federal legislature: The central legislature was bi-cameral consisting of Federal assembly and the Council of States.
- The Council of States consisted of 260 members.
- Federal Assembly consisted of 475 members.
(e) Federal Court: It provided for the first time the establishment of a Federal Court for India in Delhi in 1937.
Following were the jurisdiction of Federal Court:-
- It had Original Jurisdiction to decide disputes between the centre and the provinces.
- Appellate Jurisdiction over decisions of the High Court.
- Advisory Jurisdiction to advice the Governor General on any point of law.
(f) Provincial Autonomy:- As per 1935 Act, the provinces no longer remained as delegates of Central Government but became autonomous units of administration. The provincial autonomy was introduced in IT provinces.
Explain the nature of party system in India.
Political parties play a vital role in a democracy. India has the largest democracy in the world. It has many political parties which operate at various levels viz., local, state and national levels.
The nature of Indian party system is as follows:
(a) Extra constitutional growth:- There is no reference in the Constitution of India about how many political parties are to be existed in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all the citizens can have freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence political parties have no constitutional base.
(b) Prevalence of multi party system: India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture and traditions. The heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the stream of the country.
(c) Split and merger: It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
(d) End of single party era: India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975 -1977 forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to single party era.
(e) Dissident activities: Meanness
of leaders like personal attitudes, favoritism, nepotism lead to dissent activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves way to political instability.
(f) Defection: Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and many more reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
(g) Leader worship: Most of the political parties in India emphasize on the leaders, then the ideologies of the parties. The leaders decides the destiny of the political party.
(h) Alliances without principles: Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
(i) Dominance of regional parties: The presence of regional parties during first general election did not influence the voters hence they were rejected. During 1980’s they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario.
(j) Religious, lingual and regionalism: The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like.
(k) Leftist and rightist parties: Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies. Eg. CPI, CPI(M) who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system. Parties like BJP, Akalidal, Shivasena believe in moderate changes in the system.
(l) The era of coalition: When no single political party secures absolute majority, various political parties come together and make the alliance and form the coalition government. The era of coalition started during 1977, and is still existing.
Describe the democratic movement of Nepal.
(a) 21st century is known as the era of democratic movements. These movements in Afro-Asian nations started to overthrow despotic, autocratic and other authoritarian Governments. Nepal is a small land locked kingdom in Southern Asia, lying between India to the south and Tibet to the North. Monarchy was prevalent in Nepal since 18th century. During the rule of Birendra % Bir Bikram Shah Dev, democratic Maoist movements started mainly because of the influence of India and China.
(b) Nepal’s democratic experiment suffered a serious setback in December 1960, when the first elected Government led by National Congress leader Koirala was dissolved and the whole party activities were barined in Nepal in later parts of the decade which continued till 1979.
(c) In 1980, limited democracy resulted in the creation of a multiparty parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996, with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a people’s Republic. Maoist insurgency began in 1996 and ended with the Communist victory in 2001. The comprehensive Peace Accord was signed on 21st November 2006. The crown prince killed king Birendra and the royal family members, bringing the unpopular Gyanendra to the throne.
(d) Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. At the same time, the king reinstated the old Nepal house of Representatives, with an assurance of permanent peace and the multiparty democracy. The king called upon the seven party alliance (SPA) to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity.
(e) The popular Government assumed office on 18th May 2006, and withdrew all the privileges given to the king unanimously.
The bill included the following:
- Imposing tax on the royal family and its assets.
- Ending the Raj Parishad, a Royal Advisory Council.
- Eliminating Royal references from the army and Government titles.
- Declaring Nepal a secular country and not a Hindu kingdom.
- Scrapping the national anthem until a new one is composed.
- Eliminating the king’s position as the Supreme Commander of the army. This is popularly known as the “Nepalese Magna Carta”.
Explain the concepts of International relations.
The concepts of International Relations are as follows :
(a) State Sovereignty : It is the obligation . of sovereign states to respect the sovereignty of other states. No state can dictate others and all states are equal in matters of status, dignity and honour. Based on dependence and interdependence among states, they are ‘ gaining and loosing sovereignty.
(b) National Power : It is the sum of total of the strength and capabilities of state harnessed and applied to the advancement of its national interests and the attainment of its national objectives. It encompasses population, territory, military preparedness, national character, economic and political power.
(c) National Interest: National interest is the action of the state in relation to other states. It refers to the aspirations of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of*personalities . and ideals of decision makers.
(d) Power Blocks : With the beginning of the Cold war, two power blocks emerged, i.e. USA and USSR. USA believes in the spread of democracy whereas the USSR sought the spread of communism. It paves the way for the creation of power blocks on the basis of ideology in the world.
(e) Polarity : In International Relations, polarities refers to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bipolarity during the cold war between the two super powers. The disintegration of the USSR has led to unipolarity with the USA as the super power. After 2010 China emerged as a major power in the multipolar world.
(f) Balance of Power : The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of states in International Relations. It is an approximately equal distribution of power and inseparable part of the power politics.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences: ( 2 x 5 = 10 )
(a) Discuss the Chief Secretary and his functions.
Chief Secretary is the head of the State Secretariat. His functions are as follows:-
- He is principal adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and is the only person who attends the Cabinet meeting.
- He exercises general supervision and controls over the entire Secretariat.
- He looks after all the matters beyond the purview of other secretaries.
- As the Chief of all the Secretaries, he presides over a large number of committees and is a member of many others.
- He has control over the staff attached to the ministers. „
- He is bridge between the State and the Central government.
(b) Write about the 69th Republic day celebration in your college.
Republic Day a memorable occasion for the nation was celebrated in our college this year also. Under the guidance of the teachers, students had decorated the college ground one day before and erected a podium as well as stage for cultural programmes.
Sri Shankaranarayana – an eminent freedom fighter and politician was invited as chief guest. As per the schedule time at 9 a.m. the chief guest arrived at our college premises. Our principal welcomed the guest with honour, respect. After invocation and prayer, function took off on a smooth note. The chief guest hoisted the tricoloured
national flag. President of our College Union read out the welcome speech. The principal of our college presided over the function along with the other staff teachers.
The Chief Guest Shankaranarayana in his guest speech highlighted the significance of Republic day celebration and what were the problems faced by Vallabhai Patel in uniting 502 provinces and division of states according to basis of language and culture. He also explained his bold steps taken to unite Hyderabad, Junagadh and Jammu and Kashmir while migrating people faced many problems.
The speech was very interesting and very useful for political science students.
After the function is over there were some cultural programmes like singing, dancing, mime, monoacting and skit about people migrating to India or Pakistan, their problems were highlighed in the skit. The programme was much appreciated. The function came to an end with a vote of thanks and distribution of sweets.
(a) Explain the basic principles of India’s foreign policy in brief.
The basic principles of Indian Foreign Policy are as follows:
(a) Non-Alignment: India’s foreign policy has been based on the principle of non¬alignment. This policy means refusal to accept any definite commitment or to join a system of military pacts or alliances. It implies a policy of peace. It is based on the belief that war should be avoided. Nehru declared, “In the sphere of foreign affairs, India will follow an independent policy, keeping away from the politics of groups aligned against one another. India is also a leading member of the NAM.
(b) Opposition to Imperialism and Colonialism: Since India itself remained a victim of British imperialism, it has always opposed all forms of imperialism and colonialism. It has supported the cause of the exploited nations against the colonial powers. It popularized feelings and movements against imperialism. It has defended the rights of Indonesia, Namibia, Bangladesh etc., to become Independent nations.
(c) Faith in United Nations of Organisation: India has great faith in the UNO. It is a founder member of the UNO. India stands for the maintenance of international peace and security through the efforts of the UNO. It has always actively participated in all the activities of the UNO. India looks upon the UNO as an important instrument for bringing about a reduction of tensions and the establishment of honourable peace among the nations of the world.
(d) Opposition to apartheid and racial discrimination: India realized that racial discrimination is more dangerous than war itself. It has, therefore, consistently raised its voice against discrimination on the basis of race, religion, caste, colour and sex. It openly condemned South Africa for its policy of ‘apartheid’.
(e) Panchsheel: The term ‘panchsheeP is associated with the foreign policy of India. It is based on five principles of international conduct. These principles were enunciated in the agreement of friendship between India and China in 1954. The principles are:
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Non-interference in internal ‘ affairs.
- Mutual benefit and equality.
- Peaceful co-existence.
(f) Tie with Commonwealth: Although India got its independence from British imperialism, India decided to remain within the Commonwealth of Nations. It is made up of Britain and other countries which had once been its colonies. Traditionally, India had many economic ties with UK and other member countries of Commonwealth Association to get financial aid.
(g) Disarmament: Another essential concern for peace in India’s foreign policy has been arms control, disarmament and related matters. From the very beginning, India has advocated the prohibition of nuclear weapons and check on the proliferation of all kinds of weapons in the United Nations and other forums. In general, a major objective of India’s foreign policy has been comprehensive disarmament.
(h) Sympathy towards divided countries:
Partition of India and Pakistan due to divide and rule policy of British in 1947, resulted in terrible communal riots, enormous suffering of people who moved out of their homes and had to begin their life again as refugees. Because of the bitter experience of this incident, India is sympathetic towards divided countries of the world.
(i) Affinity towards Afro-Asian countries: Though India has the relations with all countries of the world, it has special
affinity towards the- countries in Asia and Africa. India supported the freedom struggle of African countries and Nelson Mandela to become the first black leader as a President. India’s role is significant in the formation of ASEAN, SAARC as regional organisations to promote the regional interests.
(j) Against cold war: Cold war began with the formation of two power blocs at the end of II world war viz., US and USSR. Rivalry between them resulted in the emergence of many military alliances. Ex. NATO, ANZUS, SEATO, CENTO. As a leader of N AM, it stayed away from the two blocs. Hence India is emphasizing to end cold war and to restore world peace.
(b) Write about the Indo-Soviet relations.
Russia is the world’s .largest country extending half way round the globe. To the west it borders Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Belarus. The much longer southern frontier extends into Central Asia. India’s relation with the former USSR has been a part of history, but it developed rapidly after the visits of Khrushchev and Bulganin to India and Nehru’s visit to Soviet Union.
Since 1955, Indo-Soviet relations have reached a new scale and dimension and regarded as a good example of bilateral and inter-state relations. The Soviets have openly declared that Indo-Soviet friendship has become a part of their ‘tradition’. People to people relationship, is a comer stone of their foreign policy.
Soviet Union contributed immensely for the development of industries and technology in India. The defence ties between the two countries helped India in building a credible defence structure. Its steadfast diplomatic support in the UN, on the Kashmir and Goa issues is commendable. The use of Veto- power in the Security Council to support India in 1971 war with Pakistan was crucial. Soviet Russia adopted Communist ideology and India accepted Democratic Socialism. Despite the ideological differences, the two countries forged a long time Treaty’ of friendship for 20 years.
Factors of Indo-USSR close ties:-
- Both India and USSR consider that the peaceful settlement of disputes between states as most crucial for the future of human race.
- Both believe in natural freedom and social equality as pre -requisite of a just world order.
- Support to liberation movements across the world are recognized by both the countries.
- Both countries opposed all forms of colonialism, imperialism, and racial discrimination.
Thus, India and USSR have realized geo-political significance and the need to strengthen bilateral ties. This is to ensure the settlement of regional problems and establishment of global peace and prosperity.
Disintegration of Soviet Union: In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev, the President of USSR introduced economic and political reforms of Terestroika’(restructuring ) and ‘Glasnost’(openness). That stopped the arms race with US, withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan, helped the unification of Germany, ended the cold war.
Other weaknesses inherent in the Soviet Union led to the disintegration of USSR and formation of 15 new countries in 1991. India recognized all of them as Sovereign states and established new diplomatic relations. Ten of them joined together to form a new associations with Russia called (CIS) (Commonwealth of Independent States).
Bilateral relations: The new leadership in Russia and other Republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union hold India in high regard due to India’s secular approach to politics, its stable democratic system of assuring rights and equality to all its citizens, self reliant industrial and economic base and its genuine concern for vital global issues e.g. peace, disarmament, economic development, human rights and democratization of international organization particularly of the UN and its agencies.
Russia continues its support to India to become a permanent member in UN Security Council. India and Russia both have multi faceted relationship involving strategic and high level co-operation. The process of bilateral annual summits has given great impetus to bilateral relations. Indo-Russia co-operation has continued to move stronger on the basis mutual interest, faith, friendship and past relations.