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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 3 with Answers
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write Sl. No’s of questions correctly.
- Visually challenged students need to answer questions No.31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A’ in Part-D.
- Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the question.
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
How is the term demography derived?
The term demography is derived from Greek words Demos (people) and Graphein (Describe) implying the description of people.
Mention any one Racial Group of India.
Who introduced the concept dominant caste?
Mention any one backward class commission of Karnataka.
Naganna Gowda Commission.
State the provisions of the Article 17 of Indian constitution.
Abolition of untouchability.
What is women empowerment?
An act of empowering women.
Who is Karnavan?
Senior male member of Tarawad.
Who said “Indian villages are little Republic”?
Who authored Wealth of Nation?
Mention any one women organization of India.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
What is cultural diversity?
Diversities in culture, mode of life, belief, morals, food dress, manners, values and socio-religious are called cultural diversities.
How is the word caste derived?
The word caste is derived from Spanish or Portuguese word ‘castes’ which means breed, race, strain or complex of hereditary qualities.
Write any two criterias of backwardness in Mandal Commission.
- Social criteria and
- Educational criteria.
Write any two attitudes of gender discrimination.
- The belief that one sex is superior to another.
- The belief that men and women are very different.
What is Stree Shakti?
It is a programme launched in 2000-01 to empower rural women and to make them self reliant.
Define joint family.
According to Iravathi Karve ‘A joint family is a group of people who live under one roof, who eat food cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common & participate in common family worship and are related to each other as some kind of kindred’.
State any two problems of Indian cities.
Poverty and Slums.
What is a slum?
A slum is an area where such dwellings predominates of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, lack of sanitation facilities.
What is Mc Donaldization?
It is a processes by which the principles of fast food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American Society as well as rest of the world.
Mention any two social movements.
Reform movement and revolutionary movements.
It is a tendency among the lower castes to more higher in the caste Hierarchy in a generation or two by adopting vegetarianism and Teetotalism by Sanskritizing its rituals.
Mention any two factor contributed to globalization.
- The Rise of Information and Communication Technology.
- Information flows.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. ( 4 × 5 = 20 )
Explain the nature of diversity of India.
The term diversity denoting collective differences so as to find out dissimilarities among groups of people: geographical, religious, linguistic etc. All these differences presuppose collective differences or prevalence of variety of groups and culture. Indian society is characterized by unity as well as diversity.
Primarily there are four major types of diversities in India, which are:
- Regional diversities
- Linguistic diversities
- Religious diversities and
- Cultural and Ethnic Diversities.
1. Regional Diversities: India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the south, there are quite lot of differences in altitude, temperature, Flora and Fauna. India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature and physical configuration.
There is the scorching heat of Rajasthan and the biting cold of the Himalayas, Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 ems per year. The result is that India has some of the wettest and driest areas in the world. India also possesses arid desserts and fertile riverine lands, bare and hilly tracts and luxuriant open plain.
2. Linguistic Diversities: Language is another source of diversity. It contributes to collective identities and even to conflicts. The Indian Constitution has recognized 22 languages in the 8th schedule for its official purposes but as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in the country. These languages belong to five linguistic families, namely; Indo-Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Austric languages, Tibeto – Burman languages and European languages.
3. Religious Diversities: There are 8 major religious communities in India. Hindus constitute the majority followed by Muslims, Christians and Sikhs. Buddhists, Jains, Zoroastrians and Jews are less than 1% each. Each major religion is further divided along the lines of religious documents, sects and cults.
Hindus are broadly divided into Shaivites, Vaishnavaites and Shaktis (worshippers of Shiva, Vishnu and Mother Goddess – Shakthi respectively) and other minor sects. Even though they took birth in India, both Jainism and Buddhism have lost their hold in India and are confined to a few small pockets. Digambars and Shwetambars are the two divisions of Jains.
4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities: Another important source of diversity is the cultural diversity. The people differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural difference varies from state to state. The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains, culture and modes of life, the character, conduct, beliefs, morals, food, dress, manners, social norms, Socio-Religious customs, rituals, etc. causes cultural and ethnic diversities in the country. Dr. R.K. Mukherji rightly said that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and culture, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems”.
Explain the Determinants of Dominant castes.
M.N. Srinivas introduces the concept of “Dominant Castes” which is of great help in understanding inter-caste relations and conflicts in Indian society. According to M.N. Srinivas “A caste is dominant when it preponderates numerically over the other castes, when it also wilds preponderant economic and political power, and when it enjoys a high ritual status in local caste hierarchy”. Nature of Dominant Castes
1. Determinants of Dominance: Adominant caste should own a sizeable amount of the land and it should enjoy greater economic and political power. In addition to this, a number of educated persons found in the caste and the nature of high occupation people pursue in the caste add to the dominant caste.
When a caste enjoys all the elements of dominance, i.e. numerical strength, economic and political power, high ritual status, it is said to be dominant in a decisive way.
2. Distribution of Dominance: Different elements of dominance are distributed differently among different castes in a village. For example, a caste, which is numerically high, may be poor and lacking in political power, while a ritually high status caste may be rich economically and lacking strength in numbers. It can also be said that when a caste enjoys one form of dominance, it is frequently able to acquire other form of dominance.
3. Dominance is Not Purely a Local Phenomenon: As M.N. Srinivas says in Rural India dominance is purely a local matter. A caste group, which has only a family or two in a particular village but enjoys decisive dominance in the wider region. Because the caste members of these families maintain a network of ties with the dominant relatives found in the wider region.
4. New Factors Affecting Dominance of Caste: According to M.N. Srinivas, western education, jobs in the administration and urban sources of income are also significant in contributing to the prestige and power of particular caste groups in the village.
5. Dominant Caste at the State Levels: Dominant castes, such as Lingayats and Vokkaligas in Karnataka. Reddys and Kammas in Andhra Pradesh, Nairs and Ezhavas in Kerala, Gounder, Padayachi and Mudaliars in Tamil Nadu, Marathas, Brahmins and Mahars in Maharashtra, Rajputs, Jats, Takurs, Gujars, Baniyas, Bhoomihars etc., in theNorth Indian states.
Explain the characteristics of micro finance.
- Loan without security.
- Loans to people who live BPL (Below Poverty Line).
- Even members of SHG may get benefit from Micro finance
- Maximum limit of loan under micro finance is relatively a small amount.
- The terms and conditions given to poor people are decided by SHG.
For some, micro finance is a movement whose object is a world in which as many poor to have permanent access to an appropriate range of high quality financial services, not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers.
Many of those who promote micro finance generally believe that such access will help poor people to get out of poverty. For others, micro finance is a way to promote economic development, employment and growth through the support of micro-entrepreneurs and small businesses.
Explain any five characteristics of joint family.
1. Depth of Generations: Joint family consists of people of three or more generations including grandparents, parents and children. Sometimes, other kins such as uncles, aunts, cousins and great grandsons also live in a joint family.
2. Common Roof: Henry Maine called the joint family a ‘Greater Home’. Members of the joint family normally reside together under the same roof. It is a place to uphold the family Heritage. It is a place for Socio, accommodation members of the joint family may reside separately. Still, they try to retain regular contacts and the feeling of belonging to the same family. They have emotional and economic links with the original family.
3. Common Kitchen: Members eat the food prepared jointly at the common kitchen. Normally, the eldest female member of the family (the wife of the Karta) supervises the work at the kitchen. Rest of the female members engaged in different kitchen work. A single kitchen under a common roof is a unique element of joint family.
4. Common Worship: Joint family derives its strength from religion. Hence, it is associated with various religious rituals and practices. Every family may have its own deity called ‘Kula devata’ and its own religious tradition. Members of the family take part in common worship, rituats and ceremonies. At least once a year they join other members to take part in the festivals, feasting, marriage ceremonies and so on.
5. Common Property: The members hold a common property. As ‘O’ Malley writes: “The joint family is a co-operative institution similar to a joint stock company in which there is a joint property”. The total earnings of the members are pooled into a common purse of the family and family expenses are met with out of that.
6. Exercise of Authority: In the patriarchal joint family usually the eldest male member known as ‘Karta’ exerscises authority. The super-ordination of the eldest member and the subordination of all the other members to him is a keynote of the joint family. His commands are normally obeyed by others. Karta ruled his family by love and affection. Similarly, in the matriarchal joint family the eldest female (matriarch) member exercises the supreme authority.
7. Arranged Marriages: In the joint family, the elders consider it as their privilege to arrange the marriages of the members. The individual’s right to select his/her life-partner is undermined. The younger members rarely challenge their decisions and arrangements. But now-a-days selecting a life partner to a family member is more of democratic in nature.
8. Identification with Mutual Rights and Obligations towards the Family: Every member has his own duties and obligations towards the family. The family in turn, protects the interests and promotes the welfare of all. The senior members of the family act as the guide for junior members.
9. Self-Sufficiency: Joint family is relatively self-sufficient. It used to meet the economic, recreational, medical, educational and other needs of the members. No type of family is self-reliant that way today.
Discuss the importance of village studies.
Importances of village studies are summarized below.
1. Field Work is an Antidote to Book View: According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist, is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and no account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this.
M.N.Srinivas undertook a study on Rampura village near Mysore, with a view to highlight that the agricultural practices of the Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. He has recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work ‘Remembered Village’.
2. Calculated opposition to change: Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only a few changes.
Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose respect they have for the rich and so on.
There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects which otherwise go unnoticed.
3. Literary Bias: Literature on caste states that caste is immobile. This is not a fact as through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy. This is also true of the conditions of women. Condition of women prevalent among the upper castes were generalized to include all . Hindus. But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes.
Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research. Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts. It is clear that the book-view and upper- caste view may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literary bias and accept facts about village communities.
4. Recording for later evaluation: Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.
5. Development of Analytical Categories: The study of Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labelled either locally or on an all India basis.
For instance, analytical models like Sanskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De-Sanskritization (Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.
6. Village Studies are important for Social Reformation: Prof. Ramakrishna Mukherjee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc., all have become rural area oriented. Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them. Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing transformation. Thus, there is the need for the study of village communities in India.
Explain the components of new social movements.
In the context of new social movements the issues of leadership, organization ideology and collective mobilisation have acquired new dimensions.
In the context of the emergence of new social movements the issues of values, culture, subjectivity, idealism, morality, identity, empowerment, etc., have got new coinage. Thus Bertaux adds the view that ‘subjectivity’ and ‘idealism’ are essential elements of social movement.
These are closely attached to the process of collective mobilization and new identity formation. Change in the form of these components brings tremendous change in the character of the social movements, and accordingly social movements may also be categorized.
IV. Answer any four of the following question in 15 sentences each. ( 4 × 5 = 20 )
Discuss the problems of declining Sex Ratio.
The Declining Sex-Ratio in India: The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011 sex ratio has been increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policy makers, social activists and concerned citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio. The sex ratio for the 0-6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overall sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
Discuss Tribal Panchasheela.
Jawaharlal Nehru laid down the policy of Integration to five principles (1957) in his foreword note to Verrier Elwin’s book, called “The Philosophy of NEFA” (NEFA -North East Frontier of Assam). The tribal panchasheela as enunciated by him as follows:
- People should ‘develop along the lines of their own genius ‘ and we should avoid imposing anything on them. We should try to encourage in every way their own traditional arts and culture.
- Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
- We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to work, administration and development. Some technical personnel from outside will, no doubt be needed especially in the beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory.
- We should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm ‘ them with a multiplicity of schemes. We should rather work through and not in rivalry to their own social and cultural institutions.
- We should judge the results not by statistics or the amount of money spent but by the quality of human character that is evolved.
Explain any five disadvantages of joint family.
- Promotes Idleness: Joint family is the home for idlers and drovers as the non-earning members do not want to earn their livelihood. In the joint family it happens that some people have to exhaust themselves while the others lead a life of utter lethargy.
- Hindrance to the Development of Personality: In joint family there is a very little opportunity for the fostering of individual autonomy or self dependence.
- Encourages Litigation and Nepotism: The joint family may encourage litigation at the time of partition of common property; generally disputed crop up peaceful life is disturbed by such litigation, quarrels and conflicts. It is that joint family systems are the root cause of Nepotism and discrimination of The Head of the family (Karta).
- Unfavourable for Savings and Investments: It is not favourable to accumulation of capital. When one has to share one’s income with large family, it is not possible to save much. Joint family has to spend large amount of money on marriage and other uneconomic activities leads to unfavorable for Investment.
- Hinders Social Mobility and Low Status of Women: Joint family damages individual initiative and enterprise and it does not provide proper opportunity for the members to develop their talents. Any new enterprise or adventure on the part of the young people is discouraged by the head of the family.
Explain any five problems of cities.
Problems of Indian cities can be classified in the following ways:
1. Urban Poverty: Urban poverty is the by product of industrialization and urbanization. Poverty and overcrowding are the two most visible features of Indian cities. About half of the urbanites are poor and live in substandard life, because of cost of living, lack of regular income, low wages, pro-rich economic policies, inflation, etc.
India has issued its first-ever report on the nature and dynamics of urban poverty in the country undertaken with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), India : Urban Poverty Report 2009 which identifies the problems faced by the poor and focuses on the systematic changes that are needed to address them.
Die report examines various issues related to urban poverty, such as migration, labour, the role of gender, access to basic services and the appealling condition of India’s slums. It also looks at the dynamics of urban land and capital market, urban governance, and the marginalisation of the poor to the urban periphery.
2. Slums: The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India, in order to implement the various schemes for urban development, has defined a slum area as follows: “A slum means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale.” These slum areas are also referred to as the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ‘Gray area’; ‘Lower class neighbourhood’; ‘Lower income area’, etc.
3. Problem of Urban Housing: The bulk of the people in the Indian cities live in one-room or in thatched huts in the sprawling slums or on the pavements. Another sad feature is total lack of essential municipal services like water supply, drainage, sewarage, lighting, roads, etc. Further, large proportion of the rural migrants have been bringing with them unskilled persons who take up unskilled jobs in the services, trade, industries, etc.
Generally a single room has to meet all the requirements of the family including cooking, living, sleeping which makes confinement. It is difficult to keep reasonably clean and sanitary washing and bathing facilities. The inconvenience they have to undergo is aggravated during the rainy days.
Almost all the above mentioned conditions are found in chawls of Mumbai, ahatas of Kanpur, bastis of Kolkata, cheris of Chennai as well as in Dhowrahas of the mining centres and barracks of the plantations in India. These are made of brick walls and iron roof or huts consisting of bamboo walls and thatched roofs. The lanes are too narrow and the huts are built back to back. These lack facilities like bathing, washing and toilets, etc.
4. Sanitation and Pollution: It is accompanied with corrupt Municipal administration and inefficiency. According to UNICEF, lakhs of urban children in India die or suffer from diarrhea, diphtheria, tetanus and measles etc.,
5. Transportation and Traffic: Transportation and traffic picture in Indian cities is troublesome. Majority of people use buses and other vehicles, while a few use rails as transport system. The increasing number of two wheelers and other types of vehicles make the traffic problem worse.
Write a note on pushkar fair.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock it has become an important tourist attraction. Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pusbkar Lake where the fair takes place. Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep and goats. The women go to the stalls, foil of bracelets, clothes, textiles and fabrics.
A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik ekadashi to Kartik Poomima, the full moon day of Kartik in Hindu calendar. The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu god Brahma sprung up the Pushkar Lake, thus numerous people swim in its sacred waters.
There are many such fairs having socio, economic and Religions importance taken place in Karnataka also. For example fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere (dt). Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauveiy Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala,Antaragange fair in Kolar etc.
Discuss five areas of Imitation in Sanskritization.
1. Ritual: Inspite of the Theoretical existence of certain restrictions, the low castes or other groups did manage to imitate the customs and rites of “Twice-born” (DWIJAS) castes. This is the best Way of claiming higher position in the caste hierarchy.
2. Marriage: According to a strict rule of Brahminism, a Brahmin should give his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty. Pre-puberty marriages were commonly practiced. It was foremost duty of a Brahmin father to give his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty, otherwise he would be committing a great sin. And marriage among the Brahmin was Indissoluble.
On the other hand, among the low Hindu castes post-puberty marriages were very common and the dissolution of marriage was possible. Now in order to rise up in the caste Hierarchy the low Hindu castes started practicing pre-puberty marriages and marriage also become Indissoluble.
3. Treatment of Widows: A Brahmin widow for instance was not allowed to re-marry, and receives miserable treatment. She required to shave her head and should not allow wearing any ornaments. She was regarded inauspicious, and not allowed to attend any important functions. On the other hand, among the low castes marriage is dissoluble and widow re-marriages are practiced.
Widows are not required to shave their heads. The codes which regulate sexual behaviour are not as strict as those among the higher castes. In the imitation process these groups, they banned widow-remarriage, and started treating the widow in the same way on that of the ‘High’ Hindu castes.
4. Treatment of Women: Comparatively, women among the high Hindu castes receive bad treatment and hold secondary position. Virginity in brides and chastity in wives is preferred. A wife is expected to treat her husband as the God. Women perform a number of “Vratas” or Religious vows with the aim of successing long life for the Husband.
Hence they are not allowed to attend important functions. Whereas women among the lower castes generally receive good treatment and occupy good position. In order to imitate the higher castes, they started treating women in a bad manner and gave them the secondary position.
5. Kinship: According to M.N. Srinivas, “In the sphere of kinship, sanskritization stresses the importance in the patrilineal lineage, sanskritization results in increasing the importance of sons. The members of higher castes prefer sons to daughters, whereas among the lower castes both boys and girls are preferred. For instance among Non-Brahmin though son is preferred, a daughter is also demanded. The treatment that receives is not as harsh as that of Brahmins. Nowadays lower castes prefer sons to daughters.
6. Ideology: Sanskritization also resulting in the use of New Ideas and values which have been frequently expressed in Sanskrit literature. The ideas and values such as Karma, Dharma, Papa, Punya, Maya, Samskara, Moksha etc. The Twice- born castes use these ideas in their conversation, Through the process of Sanskritization lower caste groups were exposed to these ideas and values which are frequent in their conversation.
7. Food Habits: Brahmins in India are by and large strict vegetarian except Kashmiri, Sarhwath and Bengali Brahmin. The lower castes usually are Non-vegetarian. Sanskritization results in the change of food habits in the direction of high, frequently twice-born caste. Some of the lower castes-become strict vegetarian and practice teetotalism in order to raise the caste hierarchy.
8. Dress Habits: It has already pointed out that Dwijas, as they are entitled to wear the sacred thread “JANIVAR” at the vedic rite of upanayana while Shudras do not. Some low castes wear the sacred thread and also imitated their dress style such as wearing dhoti, shalya, turban, kachche, panche, and so on.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25 – 30 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Explain the racial groups classified by B.S. Guha?
B.S. Guha who identified six major racial elements in the population of India:
- Western Brachycephals
In the south, the Kadar, the Irula, and the Paniyan, and in the Andaman Islands the Onge and Jarwas of the Andamanese have definite Negrito characteristics. Some traits of this group are found among the Angami Naga and the Bagadi of the Rajmahal hills. On the western coast there are some groups with pronounced Negrito traits, but they perhaps represent later arrivals, who came to India with the Arab traders.
The Proto-Australoid group is numerically more significant; most of the tribes of middle India belong to it. These were the people described by the Indo-Aryans as Anas, Dasa, Dasyu, and Nishad – all derogatoiy terms. The Mongoloid group is sub-divided into two branches – Paleo-Mongoloid and Tibeto- Mongoloid. Tribal groups in the Himalayan region and those in the north-east are of Mongoloid stock. Some Mongoloid features are seen in the non-tribal population of the eastern States – Assam, West Bengal, Manipur, and Tripura.
The Western Brachycephals (sub-divided into the Alpinoid, Dinaric, and Armenoid groups), Alpinoid and Dinaric characteristics are seen in some groups of northern and western India; the Parsis belong to the Armenoid section. The Mediterraneans are associated with the Dravidian languages and cultures. The Nordics were the last major ethnic element to arrive in India and make a profound impact on its culture and society. But before they came a unique civilization had slowly developed in India. It is known as the Indus Valley Civilization.
Explain the characteristics of caste system.
Life of every member of the Indian society is to a large extent influenced by three systems viz., joint family, caste system and village community. They influence one’s occupation, food, dress habits, philosophy and marriage. The study of caste system is important because caste in India is an all pervasive and deep rooted social institution.
Definitions of Caste:
1. Herbert Risley has defined caste as “A collection of families or a group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine, professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarding by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community”.
2. S. V. Kethkar in his work ‘History of Caste in India’ states that A caste is a group having two characteristics (1) Membership is confined to only those who are born of other members. (2) The members are forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group (Endogamy)”.
(a) Caste as a Segmental Division of Society: The society is divided into various castes with a well developed a caste is determined by birth. Caste has hereditary status, which is determined by birth. Each caste has a council of its own, known as caste Panchayat. Caste panchayats imposed certain restrictions on social intercourse between castes like marriages commensal and occupational interactions.By these restrictions each caste had its own way of life. Violation of caste norms attracted punishment from the caste panchayat depending on the seriousness of the violations.
(b) Hierarchy: The whole society is divided into distinct castes with a concept of high and low, or as superior and inferior associated with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins were placed at the top of the hierarchy and regarded as pure. The degraded castes or untouchables occupied the other end of the hierarchy. They were subjected to manifold disabilities.
(c) Restrictions on Feeding and Social Intercourse: There are minute rules as to what sort of food or drink can be accepted by a person and from what castes, who should accept food or drink at the hands of whom is defined by caste.
(d) Civil and Religious Disabilities and Privileges of the Different Sections: Segregation of individual castes or groups of castes in a village is the most obvious mark of civil privileges and disabilities and it has prevailed in a more or less definite form all over India. Generally, untouchables were made to live on the outskirts. Certain parts of the town or village are inaccessible to certain castes. Restrictions on using public roads, water facilities, Hotels etc.
(e) Restrictions on occupations: According to G S. Ghurye every caste was associated with a traditional occupation. The technical skill of the occupation was made hereditary. Since a distinction was made between occupation being clean and unclean. The hereditary occupations reflected a caste status.
(f) Restrictions on Marriages (Endogamy): Finally, every caste also maintained its rank and status regarding marriages, inter caste marriages were prohibited. Hence they practiced endogamy. Caste is an endogamous group. “Endogamy is the essence of the caste system. Every caste was segmented into sub-castes, and these sub castes were the units of endogamy.”
Explain the functions of mass media.
1. Information: The media provides a continuous flow of information about the world, from T.V., Newspapers and radio reports the political, sports, entertainment and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.
2. Correlation: The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.
3. Continuity: The media has a function in expressing the culture, recognizing new social developments and forgoing common values.
4. Entertainment: The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.
5. Mobilization: To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.
6. Social Reformation: The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
The bravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media. Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.
7. National Consciousness: It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience. People living in different comers of the country found themselves reading or hearing the same news. It has been suggested that this was in many ways responsible for people across a country to feel connected and develop a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’.
Explain the types of social movements.
Though it is very difficult to classify social movements we can study the types and social movements in the following ways; M.S.A. Rao classified social movements into three types, namely, Reform Movements, bring about partial changes in the value-paradigm of society. Revolutionary Movements bring about radical changes in the totality of social and cultural systems of society characterised by conflict and violence. Transformative Movements aim at affecting middle level structured changes, wish to bring about changes in the distribution of power, privilege, rights and resources.
Social Movements are also divided into two types:
- Inclusivist Movements
- Exclusivist Movements.
1. The Inclusivist Movements: The inclusivist movements actively articulate generally universalised, non violent and mostly, pan-humanist values. These movements find their manifestations in the collective struggles for identity, equality, dignity and social justice. It may note that most of the collective protest and mobilisations of women and the Dalits in India belong to this type of inclusivist movements. Farmer’s movements fighting the state for fair price of their agricultural produce, cheaper rate of the cost of chemical manure and more reasonable cost of electrical power deal also belong to this type of movement.
Most of the NSMs struggle for social reconstruction of society ensures equality and social justice for all. They also aim at resolving the social structural anomalies of society – such as discrimination of the human on the basis of caste, region and race. These movements are non-radical, non-separatist and non-autonomist.
2. The Exclusivist Movements: The exclusivist movements generally develop the conception of the ‘other’ and hold them responsible for their miseries. These movements instead of integrating the members of the community in socially cohesive ‘whole’ split the population in ‘we’ and ‘they’. ‘The son of the soil’ paradigm of sub-nationalist and semi-autonomist movements belong to exclusivist type of movements.
Most of the exclusivist movements generally give a call to the community to rise in defence of their social, economic and cultural identity. The mobilising slogan is that the ‘purity’ and the symbol of their cultural essence and heritage are in danger; requires sacrifice in terms of money, efforts and struggles.
For example the sub-nationalist mobilisation in the state of Assam with a slogan that, ‘Assam is for the Assamese’. In the recent past, the call for Gorkhaland in West Bengal and Uttarakhand in Uttar Pradesh illustrates the character of exclusivist movements.
VI. Answer any two of the following in 15 sentence each. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )
Explain the recommedations of Sampurnanda Committee for National Integration.
The Central Education Ministry organized a ‘Committee for National Integration’ in 1961 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand. The Integration Committee gave some recommendations to promote and strengthen national integration. Some of them are stated below:
- Re-organization of the syllabi at various levels – primary, secondary, college and university level to promote national integration.
- Giving due encouragement to extra-curricular activities besides imparting formal knowledge to the students with the intention of promoting national unity.
- Improvement of textbooks helps a great deal in giving a true national perspective to the students. They can be made to understand their rich cultural heritage and feel proud of their nation.
- Conducting community programmes such as mass prayers, mass meetings, speeches by respected leaders, etc., to help to bring the people together.
Apart from the governmental efforts to achieve the goal of national unity various stakeholders such as educational institutions, religious/cultural associations and mass media should involve in chalking out action-based programmes to enhance awareness/dissemination of traditional values among the masses and increase cultural exchange banking on the richness of our cultural heritage and diversity.
Special steps should be taken by various interest groups to speed up development of economically and socially backward groups who are the easy victims of violent activities.
Explain the problem of scheduled Tribes.
The problems of Tribals are as follows:
1. Geographical Isolation: Tribals are the people who have been living in remote areas and hill tracks, without any access to socio-economic inputs. For centuries, tribals were isolated from the rest of the community, which has also given them wide cultural variations. Their geographical isolation from the mainstream deprived them the chances for progress.
2. Cultural Problems: At present due to contact with outsiders, the tribal culture is undergoing a change. It has led to the degeneration of Tribal life and Tribal arts such as their dance, music and different types of crafts. In several tribal areas, influence of other religions have affected their culture. This is also responsible for alienating them from their culture.The tribal groups have got divided into several sects on the basis of religion. This has shattered their collective life.
3. Social Problems: Due to the influence of outsiders, the tribals are facing the problem of dowry, child marriage, infanticide and untouchability. The contact with outsiders has created several social and health related problems.
4. Economic Problems: Tribal people are economically backward. The major economic problems of tribals are as follows:
- Alienation of Tribal Land to the Non-Tribals
- Problem of indebtedness
- Exploitation in Forestry Operations
- Primitive methods of Cultivation
5. Educational Problems: According to the 2011 census, the literacy among the scheduled Tribes was 29.6 percent. Main causes of slow progress in literacy among the scheduled Tribes are poverty of the parents, content of education, inadequate educational institutions and supporting services, absentism, medium of instruction and educational policy, etc.
6. Exploitation of tribals by the Moneylenders: The Tribals continue to be the victims of exploitation by the money lenders. Indebtedness among the Tribals may be attributed to the following reasons: Poverty loopholes in the existing money lending laws, lack of awareness about sources of institutional finances and existing legal protection, inability to follow the complicated procedures to obtain loan and consumer credit from institutional sources are the major hindrances.
Indifferent attitude of government and bank officials, private money lenders willingness to advance money to the Tribals without any security paves way for later exploitation. Absence of alternative credit facility has compelled the tribals to compromise their fate with money lenders and accept indebtedness as almost an inescapable aspect of their existence. Lack of employment opportunities add to their woes.
7. Health Problems: The main cause of their sickness is the lack of clean drinking water, nutritive food and prevalence of communicable diseases.
Briefly explain the history of backward class movement in Karnataka.
The backward class movement in Karnataka is a desire of the under¬privileged people to develop their own potentialities and contribute to the economic development of the nation. In every society some groups of people are higher and some are lower due to the opportunities they have in general. By such opportunities well-off people equip themselves and pursue careers which give them prestige and profit. By contrast, the lower or other backward classes have no opportunities to equip themselves.
A new awareness arose among the non- B rah mins in the princely state of Mysore. Vokkaligas, Lingayats and Muslims of Mysore had realized their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins. By 1917, these groups form an alliance called Prajamitra Mandali in 1918, this mandali pleaded Maharaja of Mysore for the representation in legislature, reserv ation in posts of public services and educational institutions.
In 1918, a committee of six non-official members presided over by Sir Leslie Miller. Miller committee recommended the acceptance of all the demands. Since then Backward Classes in princely Mysore state have availed benefits in the field of education, employment and political arena.
1. Naganna Gowda Commission: The Karnataka Government appointed a backward class commission in 1960 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Naganna Gowda. It is the First Backward Class Commission in Karnataka. The commission has submitted its report on 1961, which recommends 15% for SCs, 3% for STs and 50% OBCs, providing total 68% of reservation. The government attempted to implement the report was stayed by the Supreme Court. However in 1963 the government issued an order guaranteeing 15% of reservation to SCs, 3% STs and 30% to OBCs.
2. L. G Havanoor Commission: In 1972 the government has appointed the second backward class commission headed by Sri L. G. Havanoor. This commission in its report submitted in 1975 stated that though more than 75% of the people in the state belonged to backward classes and deserved reservation facilities. There was no constitutional provision for giving it. Hence, it made provision for up to 50% reservation. Government made provision for 58% reservation. However it was challenged in Supreme Court and govt, gave a submission to court stating to initiate a new commission.
3. Venkataswamv Commission: In 1983, the government has appointed the Venkataswamy commission, which gave its report in 1986. The report created wide spread dissatisfaction. The government decided not to implement the report but to establish a new commission to find an amicable settlement to this problem.
4. Chinnappa Reddy Commission: The government instituted the Chinnappa Reddy commission in 1990, which has been comparatively more widely welcomed. The commission seems to have tried its best to uphold social justice. In Karnataka, the SCs and STs together enjoyed 18% while the OBCs quota is 32%.
Based on the Mandal commission’s report, the supreme court of India gave directions to establish a permanent Backward Classes Commission in the centre as well as in states and union territories. Accordingly, a permanent backward classes commission was set up in Karnataka Sri K. Narayana Rai (1994-1997), Prof, Ravi Verma Kumar (1997-2000), Sri Muniraju (2001-2003), Sri Siddalingaih (2003-2006), Dr. C. S. Dwarakanath (2007-2010) N. Shankarappa (2011 -13) headed the Backword Classes Commission in Karnataka.
At present H. Kantharaj is the chairman of Karnataka state Back word class commission. The commission recommends for inclusion or exclusion of a caste in the backward class list. In Karnataka 101 and 51 Tribers are enlisted as scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes Respectively.
Analyse the farmers suicide in Karnataka according to G.K. Veeresh Committee.
G.K. Veeresh Committee: G. K. Veeresh Committee in 2002. This committee tried to link suicides to psychological and personal reasons These include
- Alcohol, gambling, spend thriftiness (20.3 5 percent),
- Failure of crop (16.81 percent),
- Chit funds (15.04 percent),
- Family problems (13.27 percent),
- Chronic illness (9.73 percent),
- Marriage of daughters (5.31 percent),
- Political affiliations (4.42 percent),
- Property disputes (2.65 percent),
- Debt burden (2.65 percent),
- Price crash (2.65 percent),
- Borrowing beyond paying capacity and House construction and so on (2.65 percent),
- Loss in non-agricultural activities (1.77 percent) and finally.
- Failure of bore wells (0.88 percent).