Students can download Class 8 History Chapter 6 Rise of Jainism and Buddhism Important Questions, KSEEB Class 8 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and to clear all their doubts, score well in final exams.
Karnataka State Syllabus Class 8 Social Science History Important Questions Chapter 6 Rise of Jainism and Buddhism
Which were the two religions that emerged during the 6th century B.C.E. in India?
The new religions that emerged during the 6th century B.C.E. in India were Buddhism and Jainism.
What were the reasons for the rise of new religions during the 6th century B.C.E.?
The reasons for the rise of new religions in India during the 6th century B.C.E. were:
1. In the 6th century B.C.E., Indian society was divided on the basis of varnas. This varna- based society created tensions among communities. The teachings of Mahaveera and Buddha appeared as new hope for them.
2. The emergence of new economic structures based on new agricultural practices caused profound changes in the political and religious systems. The use of oxen became inevitable to improve food production. But the oxen were sacrificed during religious rituals which brought down their number.
In this background Jainism and Buddhism which denounced animal sacrifice and non-violence provided new hope to the people.
3. Due to the growth of cities, artisans and business people (Vyshyas) came and settled in these cities. But they commanded no respect in society. In order to escape the limitations placed by Vedic religion on their social status, they supported the new religions which rejected the varna system.
4. Major changes in the political system also contributed to the rise of new religions. The new kingships that developed from the Janapada communities accepted the philosophy of Buddha and Mahaveera who preached the futility of war and supported non-violence.
5. Jainism and Buddhism offered a new path to the people by rejecting the Vedic religion. They preached in the language of the common people instead of Sanskrit.
Who was the first Thirthankara?
The first Thirthankara was Rishabha.
Which were the four principles preached by Parshwanatha?
Non-violence, Truth, Astheya (not to steal) and Aparigraha (not to own property) were the four principles preached by Parshwanatha.
Describe the life of Mahaveera.
Vardhamana was born in Kundalagrama in Vaishali. His father was Siddhartha, the king of the Gnatrika tribe. His mother was Trishaladevi, the princess of the Republic of Lichchavi. At the age of 30, Vardhamana set out in search of truth and renounced his family and house. He wandered for 12 years in this quest and meditated.
He punished his body by fasting. At the age of 42, he achieved enlightenment. Due to this he came to be known as Mahaveera and became a ‘Jina’. He spent the rest of his life preaching his knowledge to the people around the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.
What were the teachings of Mahaveera?
Mahaveera taught five vows and three principles of behaviour. The latter are called Triratnas. The five vows are: Non-violence, Truth, Astheya, Aparigraha and Brahmacharya. The triratnas are: Samyakgyan, Samyakdarshan and Samyakcharitra.
Which are the triratnas of jainism?
The triratnas or the three principles of behaviour taught by Mahaveera are – Samyakgyan, Samyakdarshan and Samyakcharitra.
What are the main beliefs of Jainism?
Jainism does not reject the existence of God completely, yet it advocates atheism. It denies the role of God in the daily affairs of people. It places God at a lower level than Jina. They also believe that every animate and inanimate thing- possesses a soul. Jainism believes that it is only through purification of the soul that one can achieve freedom from rebirth and attain nirvana.
Purification is possible through meditation, fasting, punishment of the body and thereby destruction of the body. This process is known as Sallekhana. The concept of Karma is a very important aspect of Jainism.
Which are the two sects of Jainism?
The two sects of Jainism are Shwethambaras and Digambaras.
Who are Shwethambaras and Digambaras?
Those saints and their followers who wear white clothes are called Shwethambaras, whereas those saints and their followers who do not wear any clothes are called Digambaras.
What ere Angas?
After the first Jain council, the preachings of Mahaveera were compiled in 12 volumes. These were called Angas by the Jains. They are in Prakrit language.
Who were the famous Jam Kannada poets?
The famous Jain Kannada poets were Pampa, Ponna, Ranna and Janna.
Describe the early life of Gautama Buddha.
Gautama Buddha’s earlier name was Siddhartha. He was born in the 6th century B.C.E. His father Shuddodana was the king of the republic of Shakyas. Renouncing kingly luxury and familial happiness, Siddhartha became a hermit and embarked upon a quest for truth. On attaining enlightenment he became the Buddha.
What is meant by ‘Dharma Chakra Pvavarthana’?
The first sermon given by Buddha at Sarnath after his enlightenment is known as Dharma Chakra Pravarthana.
Which are the four Noble Truths? What is meant by Eightfold path?
The four Noble Truths and Eight fold path are the essence of Buddha’s teachings.
The four Noble Truths are:
- The world is full of sorrow and suffering.
- Desire is the root cause of sorrow.
- Only by liberation from desires a peaceful life is possible.
- Desire can be overcome by following the Eight fold path.
The Eight fold path was preached by Buddha for eliminating desires. This is also called the middle path. It included – Right
Who were the people influenced by the new religion?
Wealthy merchants, artisans and common people were influenced by the new religion.
Which is the event known as ‘Mahapari nirvana’?
Buddha died at the age of 80 at Kushinagara. This has been called Mahapari nirvana.
How did worship of images of Buddha start?
Buddhism was opposed to the idea of God and image worship. But, after Buddha’s death, his followers preserved his relics and bones in Chaityas and Stupas and gradually began to worship them. After the emergence of Mahayanism, Buddha’s images and idols began to be worshipped.
Name the countries to which Buddhism spread.
Buddhism spread to countries like Tibet, Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaya, China, Japan and Afghanistan besides India.
Write a note on Tripitakas.
After the death of Buddha, his followers collected his teachings and traditions in the form of Tripitakas. These are Vinaya, Dhamma and Abhidhamma pitakas. They are considered holy texts of Buddhism.
Which are the different sects of Buddhism?
Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana are the different sects of Buddhism.
Who invaded India during the 6th century B.C.E. and occupied the northwestern regions?
In the 6th century B.C.E., King Darius of Akhimenian Empire of Persia invaded India and occupied the northwest regions.
When did Alexander’s invasion take place? What was its result?
During the 4th century B.C.E., Alexander, the Macedonian king, after conquering Persia, invaded India. He advanced till Ravi and Beas rivers and unable to proceed further, he crossed the Indian border through river Jhelum, and on the way back home he died at Babylon.
Alexander’s invasion led to the consolidation of small and big republics and the establishment of the Mauryan dynasty. The Greek influence also began to be felt in areas like art and science. This influence is visible in the Gandhara School of art and in astronomy.
Multiple Choice Questions
The first ‘Thirthankara’ of the Jains was
Vardhamana added the fifth principle of to the four preached by Parshwanatha.
(B) One who is victorious
(B) One who is victorious
The three principles of behaviour taught by Mahaveera are called
According to Jainism, to get liberation from rebirth
(A) the soul should get purified
(B) the body must suffer
(C) one must undertake meditation
(D) one should give up worldly pleasures
(A) the soul should get purified
Buddha gave his first sermon at near Varanasi.
According to Buddha’s Noble Truths, the cause for sorrow is
The Eight fold path taught by Buddha is also called
(A) Middle Path
(B) Ashta Patha
(C) Eight Steps
(D) Golden Path
(A) Middle Path
The teachings and practices of Buddhism are compiled in
The Greek ruler who invaded India during the 4th century B.C.E. was
Fill In The Blanks
- The first Jain Tirthankara was Rishabha
- Vardhamana was born at Kundalagrama
- Mahaveera attained Kaivalya in his 42nd year.
- Mahaveera attained Nirvana at Pavapuri in his 72nd year.
- The original name of Gautama Buddha was Siddhartha
- Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath
- The first sermon of Buddha is called Dharma Chakra Pravarthana
- The teachings of Mahaveera are compiled and preserved in texts called Angas
- Jainas undergo Sallekhana to attain Nirvana.
- Shwethambaras and Digambaras are the two sects of Jainism.
- Buddha attained Parinirvana in his 80th year.
- Inspired by the teachings of Buddhism Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the architect of the Indian Constitution, became a Buddhist.
- Huge statues of Buddha are found at Bamiyan in Afghanistan.
- Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana are the different sects of Buddhism.
Match The Following
|a. Parshwanatha||1. Original name of Buddha|
|b. Trishaladevi||2. Founder of Jainism|
|c. Vardhamana Mahaveera||3. Father of Buddha|
|d. Shuddhodana||4. King of Lichchavis|
|e. Siddhartha||5. Mother of Mahaveera|
|6. 23rd Thirthankara|
a – 6, b – 5, c – 2, d – 3, e – 1.