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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 8 Social Science History Important Questions Chapter 8 The Guptas and Vardhanas
When did the Gupta dynasty come to power?
The Gupta dynasty came to power in 275 C.E.
Who was the founder of the Gupta dynasty?
Shri Gupta was the founder of the Gupta dynasty.
From where did the Guptas begin their rule?
The Guptas began their rule from Prayag.
Which place became the capital of the Gupta dynasty?
Pataliputra became the capital of the Gupta dynasty.
List the sources for the study of the Guptas.
The sources for the study of the Gupta dynasty are: pillar inscriptions of Allahabad and Mehrauli, Vishakadutta’s ‘Mudrarakshasa’ and ‘Devichandraguptam’, Rajashekara’s ‘Poetics’, works of Kalidasa, Vijjika’s ‘Kaumudi Mahotsava’ and the writings of Fahien and Itsing.
Who wrote the Allahabad Pillar Inscription? Whose achievements does it describe?
The Allahabad Pillar Inscription was written by Harisena, the court poet of Samudragupta. This inscription describes the achievements of Samudragupta.
Describe the achievements of Samudragupta.
Samudragupta was one of the greatest rulers of the Gupta dynasty. Most parts of India were under the Guptas during the time of Samudragupta. He performed the Ashwamedha Yaga. He was a great poet and lover of music too. His passion for music can be seen in his gold coins, which depict him playing on the veena.
“The iron pillar at Mehrauli in Delhi is an example of the technical skill of the Gupta period”. How?
The iron pillar at Mehrauli in Delhi is said to belong to the Gupta period. It is 23 feet and eight inches tall and weighs 6000 kg. Even though it is more than 1500 years old, it has not rusted. This stands testimony for the technical skill of the time.
Write about Chandragupta II.
Chandragupta II was one of the powerful emperors of India. He expanded the Gupta Empire and brought stability to it. He defeated the Sakas and made Western India a part of his empire. He developed relationships with many royal families through marriages.
He earned the title Vikramaditya. His reign is remembered more for the encouragement given to literature and art rather than for his battles. There were many scholars in his court.
Name the literary works of Kalidasa.
Kalidasa’s literary works include ‘Meghadoota’, ‘Raghuvamsha’, ‘Kumarasambhava’, ‘Ritu Samhara’, and ‘Abhijnana Shakuntala’.
What were the reasons for the downfall of the Gupta Empire?
The Gupta Empire declined because of the continual attacks of the Hunas. The Guptas did not have a large or fully equipped army. They depended more on their vassals. This had made the vassals very powerful.
Name the famous scientists of the Gupta age.
Varahamihira, Bhaskara, Aryabhata, Charaka, Dhanwantari and Sushruta were the great scientists of the Gupta period.
Write a note on the development of science during the Gupta period.
Varahamihira, Bhaskara, Aryabhata, Charaka, Dhanwantari and Sushruta were the great scientists of the Gupta period. Dhanwantari was a famous scholar in the field of medicine. He compiled a dictionary of Ayurveda. Therefore, he is called the father of Indian Medicine. Aryabhata was a famous astronomer and mathematician.
He made significant contributions to mathematics and astronomy. He is said to have invented the number ‘Zero’. He was also the first Indian to master algebra. He also explained the cause of the eclipses. Varahamihira, a famous astronomer, wrote ‘Pancha Siddanthika’, ‘Bruhat Samhita’, ‘Bruhat Jataka’ and ‘Laghu Jataka’. Charaka wrote ‘Charaka Samhita’. Sushruta, a surgeon, was the first Indian to explain the process of surgery.
Why is the Gupta age called the Golden Age of Sanskrit literature?
The Gupta kings extended great patronage to Sanskrit literature. Their court had great poets and writers like Kalidasa, Amarasimha, Shudraka and Vishakhadatta. Their writings enriched Sanskrit literature. The Dharma Sastras and Puranas were also written during this period. It is for this reason Gupta Age is considered as the Golden Age of Sanskrit literature.
Name the most prominent kingdom that came into existence after the decline of the ‘ Gupta Empire.
The most prominent kingdom that came into existence after the decline of the Gupta Empire was that of Vardhanas of Thaneswar.
What are the sources that throw light on the reign of Harshavardhana and his times?
Banabhatta’s ‘Harshacharita’, Hiuen Tsang’s writings and some copper inscriptions of the period throw light on Harsha’s rule and his times.
Who was the founder of the Vardhana dynasty?
Pushyabhuti was the founder of the Vardhana dynasty.
Who were the prominent rulers of the Vardhana dynasty?
Pushyabhuti was the founder of the Vardhana dynasty. Prabhakaravardhana and Harshavardhana were the other prominent rulers of this dynasty. .
Write a note on the achievements of Harshavardhana.
Harshavardhana was a prominent king of the Vardhanas. He became the king of Thaneswar after the death of his father Prabhakaravardhana and brother Rajyavardhana. He captured Kanauj and attacked the king of Bengal. Bengal and Magadha came under his ruie. But he could not advance beyond the Narmada river in the south as his progress was halted by the Chalukya king Pulakeshi II.
Describe the administrative system of the Vardhanas.
Under the Vardhanas the king was assisted by a council of ministers. The bureaucracy consisted of the Mahasandhivigraha (the negotiator), Mahabaladhikruta (military general), Bhogapati (tax official) and Doota. The kingdom was divided into provinces. Land tax was the major source of income. Feudatory chiefs paid tribute to the king. The king gave them land grants and in return got the help of their armies.
Write a note on Nalanda University.
The ancient university of Nalanda was situated in the present state of Bihar. As an educational centre it lasted many centuries. Many rulers gave grants and gifts to this university. There were students from different regions and countries. This was a great centre of Buddhist learning.
Nagarjuna, the chief exponent of the middle path, Dinnaga and Dharmapala were the famous scholars who taught here. The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang, who visited the place and stayed there for some time, has given a detailed description of the place.
There were stupas, chaityas, viharas, rest houses, steps to sit and rest awhile, meditation rooms, lecture rooms and many other structures. The Gupta kings and Harshavardhana were patrons of the university.
Multiple Choice Questions
Samudragupta’s accomplishments are immortalised by the ________ pillar inscription of Harisena.
The iron pillar at Mehrauli belongs to the period.
The Gupta emperor who had the title of Vikramaditya was
(B) Chandragupta I
(C) Chandragupta II
(C) Chandragupta II
Which one of the following plays is not written by Kalidasa?
(B) Ritu Samhara
The Gupta Empire declined because of the continued attacks of the
Shushruta’s ‘Shushruta Samhita’ deals with
Zero is believed to have been invented by
‘Harsha Charita’ was written by
Fill In The Blanks
- The Guptas began their reign from prayag
- Chandragupta II is called vikramaditya.
- Kalidasa’s greatest play is Abijnana shakuntala.
- Vishakhadatta’s literary work is Mudra Rakshasa.
- The literary work of Shudraka is Mrichchakatikam.
- The founder of the Vardhana dynasty was Pushyabuti.
- The composer of the Allahabad pillar inscription is Harisena.
- The iron pillar of the Gupta period which has not rusted for centuries is at Mehrauli
- Dhanwantari is known as the father of Indian Medicine.
- ‘Panchasiddhantika’, considered as the Bible of astronomy, was written by Varahamihira.
- The Chalukya ruler who defeated Harshavardhana was Pulikeshi II.
Match The Following
|a. Shudraka||1. Abhijnana Shakuntala|
|b. Vishakhadatta||2. Harshacharita|
|c. Kalidasa||3. Brihatjataka|
|d. Banabhatta||4. Mrichchakatikam|
|5. Mudra Rakshasa|
a – 4, b – 5, c – 1, d – 2.
|a. Dhanwantari||1. Charaka Samhita|
|b. Aryabhata||2. Dictionary of Ayurveda|
|c. Varahamihira||3. Invented Zero|
|d. Charaka||4. Sushruta Samhita|
a – 2, b – 3, c – 5, d – 1.