Students can download Class 8 Sociology Chapter 2 Culture Important Questions, KSEEB Class 8 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and to clear all their doubts, score well in final exams.
Karnataka State Syllabus Class 8 Social Science Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Culture
What is culture?
Culture is a unique possession of man. It is culture that separates human beings from animals. Every man can be regarded as a representative of his culture. Culture means the transfer of knowledge, experience, belief, value, behaviour, etc., from generation to generation.
It is a system of life and knowledge shared among the members of a social group. Culture indicates progress in lifestyle, music, literature, art, science and technology of any given society.
According to E.B. Tylor, “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, aft, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society”. According to Malinowski, “Culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends ’’.
How is the word ‘culture’ derived?
The word ‘culture’ is derived from the Latin word ‘colere’, which means ‘cultivate’ or ‘tend’.
Who divided cultures into two groups?
Ogburn divided cultures into two groups.
Mention the types or two groups of culture.
Culture is divided into two types or groups – Material culture and non-material culture.
What is material culture?
Material culture includes all those physical objects and tools that are used by human beings and which are visible to the eye. It is created by human beings by converting resources into structures or things such as buildings, bridges, roads, computers, etc.
What is non-material culture?
Non-material culture includes thoughts, ideas, beliefs and values. It is something internal and reflects the inward nature of man such as traditions, beliefs, rituals, customs, language, religion, etc.
Distinguish between material and non-material culture.
1. Material culture includes all those physical objects and tools that are used by human beings and which are visible to the eye. Non-material culture includes thoughts, ideas, beliefs and values.
2. Material culture is created by human beings by converting resources into structures of things such as buildings, bridges, roads, computers, etc. Non-material culture is something internal and reflects the inward nature of man such as traditions, beliefs, rituals, customs, language, religion, etc.
3. Material culture undergoes change swiftly. Non-material culture undergoes change slowly compared to material culture.
State the features of culture.
- Culture is abstract.
- Culture is social.
- Culture is learnt.
- Culture is continuous.
- Culture is diverse.
Explain the features of culture.
1. Culture is abstract:
Culture means the lifestyle of a social group. The accepted way of life is transmitted from generation to generation. This process of transmission is abstract.
2. Culture is social:
Culture is not personal or individual. It originates and develops through social interactions and is shared by the members of the society.
3. Culture is learnt:
Culture is not inherited biologically but learnt socially by man. It does not come by birth. It can be acquired only by association and interaction with others.
4. Culture means coexistence:
Culture is not something that an individual alone can possess. It is something shared. Culture provides opportunity to every individual to share traditions, values, knowledge, beliefs and other aspects necessary for human existence.
5. Culture is continuous:
Culture exists as a continuous and cumulative process. Every culture grows and sustains itself by imbibing new aspects into it.
6. Culture is diverse:
Cultures are not uniform. Cultures vary from society to society. Every society or social group has its own culture.
Explain cultural diversity.
Every social group has its own culture. Hence culture is not uniform. Aspects of culture like customs, moral values, art, beliefs and language differ from society to society. The difference is visible in urban, rural and tribal societies. Not only this, but even people living in the same place also tend to have different cultures.
Give examples of cultural diversity in your neighbourhood.
1. In our neighbourhood, we see diversity in dress. North Indians dress differently from South Indians.
2. There are people speaking different languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu in our neighbourhood.
3. In our neighbourhood one can observe diversity in food as well. Some consume vegetarian , food while some others consume non-vegetarian food. Similarly there are different food styles among North Indians and South Indians. Diversity is also seen in the food consumed by people of Dakshina Kannada and Uttara Kannada.
What is a custom? Give examples.
A custom is a pattern of behaviour that is followed by members of a particular culture. For example, shaking hands, bowing and kissing are all customs: they are ways of greeting people that help to distinguish one society from.another.
Standing for the flag salute, pulling over to the side of the road when a funeral goes by, moving to the right or left when you and another person come face to face on a footpath, not entering an elevator before those exiting are all off, covering your mouth when you cough are all examples of customs.
What are values? Give example.
Values are the behaviour expected of human beings by society. Freedom, honesty, cleanliness, humility, patriotism are examples for values. Values enable us to determine what is good or bad.
Explain the importance of culture.
1. Culture is a treasure of knowledge:
Culture provides knowledge which is essential for the physical and social existence of man. Animals survive and get adjusted to their natural environment with the help of instincts. But human beings have to utilise their knowledge and intelligence to survive.
Culture preserves knowledge and helps its transmission from generation to generation through one of its elements, that is, language. Hence culture is not only a bundle of traditions it is also a treasure of knowledge needed for social development
2. Culture explains situations:
Culture defines and explains social situations for us. Study of culture reveals the evolution of human society in relation to the contemporary situation.-
3. Culture defines values:
Values is the tool that analyses the attitudes, behaviour and thoughts of a particular society. It is a culture that conditions our attitude towards various issues. Thus, by defining attitudes, values, and goals, culture strengthens human relationships.
4. Culture explains behavioural models:
Culture directs and confines the behaviour of an individual. Culture assigns goals and provides means for achieving them. It supports those behaviours that are in tune with societal aims. Similarly, it punishes those behaviours that are against societal expectations.
Bring out the relationship between culture and society. .
1. The relationship between culture and society is mutual:
Culture is the base of the evolution of human society. Culture has been a part and parcel of human society since the beginning of civilisation. Culture is an indivisible part of society. Human interactions are based on culture and without interactions no society can be in existence. Hence, without culture there is no society and without society there is no culture.
2. Culture and society are two faces of the same coin:
Culture makes human beings different from animals. Social controls in a society are based on cultural aspects. Social controls define human behaviour. Individuals in a society are members of various social institutions. Every institution regulates the behaviour of individuals through its cultural tools.
Culture and society are two faces of the same coin. How?
Culture makes human beings different from animals. Social controls in a society are based on cultural aspects. Social controls define human behaviour. Individuals in a society are members of various social institutions. Every institution regulates the behaviour of individuals through its cultural tools. Hence culture and society are two faces of the same coin.
Explain the features of fairs.
- Fairs are an important cultural ritual of rural societies.
- It is a place where agricultural products and domestic animals are bought and sold.
- It is also a means of entertainment after the harvest season.
- Since people participate in the fairs irrespective of their caste, creed or language, they reinforce social relationships.
- The people who participate in fairs speak different languages, follow different customs and belong to different cultural groups.
Multiple Choice Questions
The word ‘culture’ is derived from the Latin word ‘colere’ which means
Culture was divided into material culture and non-material culture by
(A) E.B. Tylor
(D) Radcliffe Brown.
In every society one can see different cultures. This is called _________ of culture.
An example of non-material culture is
In every culture ___________ help to decide what is right and what is wrong.
Fill Up In The Blanks
- Culture means To Cultivate
- Customs mean Daily life activities.
- Unity in diversity is found in India.
- Mutual relationship is found between culture and society.
- Culture is the Abstract transfer of ideas from generation to generation.
- Material culture is also called Civilisation